98 年 - 2009年6月大学英语四级考试真题#12794
1. How Do You See Diversity?
As a manager, Tiffany is responsible for interviewing applicants for some of the positions with her company .During one interview, she noticed that the candidate never made direct eye contact. She was puzzled and somewhat disappointed because she liked the individual otherwise.
He had a perfect resume and gave good responses to her questions, but the fact that he never looked her in the eye said “untrustworthy,” so she decided to offer the job to her second choice.
“It wasn’t until I attended a diversity workshop that I realized the person we passed over was the perfect person,” Tiffany confesses. What she hadn’t known at the time of the interview was that the candidate’s “different” behavior was simply a cultural misunderstanding . He was an Asian-American raised in a household where respect for those in authority was shown by averting(避开) your eyes.
“I was just thrown off by the lack of ye contact; not realizing it was cultural,” Tiffany says. “I missed out ,but will not miss that opportunity again.”
Many of us have had similar encounters with behaviors we perceive as different. As the world becomes smaller and our workplaces more diverse, it is becoming essential to expand our under-standing of others and to reexamine some of our false assumptions .
At a time when hiring qualified people is becoming more difficult ,employers who can eliminate invalid biases(偏爱) from the process have a distinct advantage .My company, Mindsets LLC ,helps organizations and individuals see their own blind spots . A real estate recruiter we worked with illustrates the positive difference such training can make .
“During my Mindsets coaching session ,I was taught how to recruit a diversified workforce. I recruited people from different cultures and skill sets .The agents were able to utilize their full potential and experiences to build up the company .When the real estate market began to change, it was because we had a diverse agent pool that we were able to stay in the real estate market much longer than others in the same profession.”
Blinded by Gender
Dale is an account executive who attended one of my workshops on supervising a diverse workforce . “Through one of the sessions ,I discovered my personal bias ,” he recalls . “I learned I had not been looking at a person as a whole person , and being open to differences .” In his case , the blindness was not about culture but rather gender .
“I had a management position open in my department ;and the two finalists were a man and a woman . Had I not attended this workshop , I would have automatically assumed the man was the best candidate because the position required quite a bit of extensive travel . My reasoning would have been that even though both candidates were great and could have been successful in the position , I assumed the woman would have wanted to be home with her children and not travel .”Dale’s assumptions are another example of the well-intentioned but incorrect thinking that limits an organization’s ability to tap into the full potential of a diverse workforce .
“I learned from the class that instead of imposing my gender biases into the situation , I needed to present the full range of duties, responsibilities and expectations to all candidates and allow them to make an informed decision .” Dale credits the workshop , “because it helped me make decisions based on fairness .”
Year of the Know-It-All
Doug is another supervisor who attended one of my workshops .He recalls a major lesson learned from his own employee.
“One of my most embarrassing moments was when I had a Chinese-American employee put in a request to take time off to celebrate Chinese New Year . In my ignorance , I assumed he had his dates wrong , as the first of January had just passed . When I advised him of this , I gave him a long talking-to about turning in requests early with the proper dates .
“He patiently waited , then when I was done , he said he would like Chinese New Year did not begin January first , and that Chinese New Year ,which is tied to the lunar cycle ,is one of the most celebrated holidays on the Chinese calendar . Needless to say , I felt very embarrassed in assuming he had his dates mixed up . But I learned a great deal about assumptions , and that the timing of holidays varies considerably from culture to culture .
“Attending the diversity workshop helped me realize how much I could learn by simply asking questions and creating dialogues with my employees , rather than making assumptions and trying to be a know-it-all ,” Doug admits . “The biggest thing I took away from the workshop is learning how to be more ‘inclusive’ to differences.”
A better Bottom Line
An open mind about diversity not only improves organizations internally , it is profitable as well . These comments from a customer service representative show how an inclusive attitude can improve sales .”Most of my customers speak English as a second language . One of the best things my company has done is to contract with a language service that offers translations over the phone . It wasn’t until my boss received Mindsets’ training that she was able to understand how important inclusiveness was to customer service . As result , our customer base has increased .”
Once we start to see people as individuals . and discard the stereotypes , we can move positively toward inclusiveness for everyone . Diversity is about coming together and taking advantage of our differences and similarities . It is about building better communities and organizations that enhance us as individuals and reinforce our shared humanity .
When we begin to question our assumptions and challenge what we think we have learned from our past , from the media, peers , family , friends , etc , we begin to realize that some of our conclusions are flawed(有缺陷的) or contrary to our fundamental values . We need to train our-selves to think differently , shift our mindsets and realize that diversity opens doors for all of us ,creating opportunities in organizations and communities that benefit everyone .
What bothered Tiffany during an interview with her candidate?
(A) He just wouldn’t look her in the eye.
(B) He was slow in answering her questions.
(C) His answers to some of her questions were irrelevant.
(D) His answers to some of her questions were irrelevant .
2.【題組】2. Tiffany’s misjudgment about the candidate stemmed from .
(A) Racial stereotypes.
(C) Racial stereotypes.
(B) Invalid personal bias .
(D) Emphasis on physical appearance
3.【題組】3. What is becoming essential in the course of economic globalization according to the author?
(A) Hiring qualified technical and management personnel.
(B) Increasing understanding of people of other cultures.
(C) Constantly updating knowledge and equipment.
(D) Expanding domestic and international markets.
4.【題組】4. What kind of organization is Mindsets LLC?
(A) A real estate agency.
(C) A cultural exchange organization.
(B) A personnel training company.
(D) A hi-tech company
5.【題組】5. After one of the workshops ,account executive Dale realized that .
(A) He had hired the wrong person.
(B) He could have done more for his company.
(C) He had not managed his workforce well.
(D) He must get rid of his gender bias.
6.【題組】6. What did Dale think of Mindsets LLC’s workshop?
(A) It was well-intentioned but poorly conducted.
(B) It tapped into the executives’ full potential.
(C) It helped him make fair decisions.
(D) It met participants’ diverse needs.
7.【題組】7. How did Doug, a supervisor, respond to a Chinese-American employee’s request for leave?
(A) He told him to get the dates right.
(C)He flatly turned it down
(B) He demanded an explanation.
(D)He readily approved it.
8.The January fashion show, called FutureFashion , exemplified how far green design has come. Organized by the New York-based nonprofit Earth Pledge, the show inspired many top designers to work with sustainable fabrics for the first time. Several have since made pledges to include organic fabrics in their lines.
The designers who undertake green fashion still face many challenges. Scott Hahn, cofounder with Gregory of Rogan and Loomstate, which uses all-organic cotton, says high-quality sustainable materials can still be tough to fine . “Most designers with existing labels are finding there aren’t comparable fabrics that can just replace what you’re doing and shat your customers are used to,” he says. For example, organic cotton and non-organic cotton are virtually indistinguishable once woven into a dress. But some popular synthetics, like stretch nylon, still have few eco-friendly equivalents.
Those who do make the switch are finding they have more support. Last year the influential trade show Designers & Agents stopped charging its participation fee for young green entrepreneurs(企业家) who attend its two springtime shows in Los Angeles and New York and gave special recognition to designers whose collections are at least 25% sustainable . It now counts more than 50 green designers, up from fewer than a dozen two years ago. This week Wal-Mart is set to announce a major initiative aimed at helping cotton farmers go organic: it will buy transitional(过渡型的) cotton at higher prices , thus helping to expand the supply of a key sustainable material . “Mainstream is about to occur,” says Hahn.
Some analysts(分析师) are less sure . Among consumers, only 18%are even aware that ecofashion exists, up from 6% four years ago. Natalie Hormilla, a fashion writer, is an example of the unconverted consumer, when asked if she owned any sustainable clothes, she replied: “Not that I’m aware of.” Like most consumers, she finds little time to shop, and when she does, she’s on the hunt for “cute stuff that isn’t too expensive.” By her own admission, green just isn’t yet on her mind. But –thanks to the combined efforts of designers, retailers and suppliers –one day it will be.
What is said about FutureFashion?
(A) It inspired many leading designers to start going green.
(B) It showed that designers using organic fabrics would go far.
(C) It served as an example of how fashion shows should be organized.
(D) It convinced the public that fashionable clothes should be made durable.
9.【題組】58. According to Scott Hahn, one big challenge to designers who will go organic is that .
(A) much more time is needed to finish a dress using sustainable materials .
(B) they have to create new brands for clothes made of organic materials .
(C) customers have difficulty telling organic from non-organic materials .
(D) quality organic replacements for synthetics are not readily available .
10.【題組】59. We learn from Paragraph 3 that designers who undertake green fashion .
(A) can attend various trade shows free .
(B) are readily recognized by the fashion world
(C) can buy organic cotton at favorable prices .
(D) are gaining more and more support .
11.【題組】60. What is Natalie Hormilla’s attitude toward ecofashion?
(A) She doesn’t seem to care about it.
(C) She is doubtful of its practical value.
(B) She doesn’t think it is sustainable
(D) She is very much opposed to the idea
12.【題組】61. What does the author think of green fashion?
(A) Green products will soon go mainstream.
(B) It has a very promising future.
(C) Consumers have the final say.
(D) It will appeal more to young people.
Scientists have devised a way to determine roughly where a person has lived using a strand(缕) of hair , a technique that could help track the movements of criminal suspects or unidentified murder victims .
The method relies on measuring how chemical variations in drinking water show up in people’s hair.
“You’re what you eat and drink, and that’s recorded in you hair,” said Thure Cerling, a geologist at the University of Utah.
While U.S diet is relatively identical, water supplies vary. The differences result from weather patterns. The chemical composition of rainfall changes slightly as raid clouds move.
Most hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water are stable , but traces of both elements are also present as heavier isotopes (同位素) . The heaviest raid falls first .As a result, storms that form over the Pacific deliver heavier water to California than to Utah.
Similar patterns exist throughout the U.S. By measuring the proportion of heavier hydrogen and oxygen isotopes along a strand of hair, scientists can construct a geographic timeline. Each inch of hair corresponds to about two months.
Cerling’s team collected tap water samples from 600 cities and constructed a mop of the regional differences. They checked the accuracy of the map by testing 200 hair samples collected from 65 barber shops.
They were able to accurately place the hair samples in broad regions roughly corresponding to the movement of raid systems.
“It’s not good for pinpointing (精确定位),” Cerling said . “It’s good for eliminating many possibilities.”
Todd Park, a local detective, said the method has helped him learn more about an unidentified woman whose skeleton was found near Great Salt Lake.
The woman was 5 feet tall. Police recovered 26 bones, a T-shirt and several strands of hair.
When Park heard about the research, he gave the hair samples to the researchers. Chemical testing showed that over the two years before her death, she moved about every two months.
She stayed in the Northwest, although the test could not be more specific than somewhere between eastern Oregon and western Wyoming.
“It’s still a substantial area,” Park said “But it narrows it way down for me.”
【題組】62.What is the scientists’ new discovery?
(A) One’s hair growth has to do with the amount of water they drink.
(B) A person’s hair may reveal where they have lived.
(C) Hair analysis accurately identifies criminal suspects.
(D) The chemical composition of hair varies from person to person.
14.【題組】63. What does the author mean by “You’re what you eat and drink” (Line 1, Para.3)?
(A) Food and drink affect one’s personality development.
(B) Food and drink preferences vary with individuals.
(C) Food and drink leave traces in one’s body tissues.
(D) Food and drink are indispensable to one’s existence.
15.【題組】64. What is said about the rainfall in America’s West?
(A) There is much more rainfall in California than in Utah.
(B) The water it delivers becomes lighter when it moves inland.
(C) Its chemical composition is less stable than in other areas.
(D) It gathers more light isotopes as it moves eastward.
16.【題組】65. What did Cerling’s team produce in their research?
(A) A map showing the regional differences of tap water.
(B) A collection of hair samples from various barber shops.
(C) A method to measure the amount of water in human hair.
(D) A chart illustrating the movement of the rain system.
17.【題組】66. What is the practical value of Cerling’s research?
(A) It helps analyze the quality of water in different regions.
(B) It helps the police determine where a crime is committed.
(C) It helps the police narrow down possibilities in detective work.
(D) It helps identify the drinking habits of the person under investigation.
Kimiyuki Suda should be a perfect customer for Japan’s car-makers. He’s a young, successful executive at an Internet-services company in Tokyo and has plenty of disposable 67 . He used to own Toyota’s Hilux Surf, a sport utility vehicle. But now he uses 68 subways and grains . “It’s not inconvenient at all ,” he says 69 , “having a car is so 20th century.”
Suda reflects a worrisome 70 in Japan; the automobile is losing its emotional appeal, 71 among the young ,who prefer to spend their money on the latest electronic devices. 72 mini-cars and luxury foreign brands are still popular ,everything in between is 73 .Last years sales fell 6.7 percent, 7.6 percent 74 you don’t count the mini-car market . There have been 75 one-year drops in other nations :sales in Germany fell 9 percent in 2007 76 a tax increase . But experts say Japan is
77 in that sales have been decreasing steadily 78 time. Since 1990, yearly new-car sales have fallen from 7.8 million to 5.4 million units in 2007.
Alarmed by this state of 79 , the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)
80 a comprehensive study of the market in 2006. It found that a 81 wealth gap, demographic(人口结构的) changes and 82 lack of interest in cars led Japanese to hold their
83 longer , replace their cars with smaller ones 84 give up car ownership altogether .JAMA
85 a further sales decline of 1.2 percent this year. Some experts believe that if the trend continues for much longer , further consolidation (合并) in the automotive sector is 86 .
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