17..III. Reading Comprehension
Drections: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked ABC and D Fill in each blank w ith the word or phrase that best fits the context.
Everyone in business has been told that success is all about attracting and retaining (留住) customers. It sounds simple and achievable. But, 50 , words of wisdom are soon forgotten. Once companies have attracted customers they often 51 the second half of the story. In the excitement of beating off the competition, negotiating prices, securing orders, and delivering the product, managers tend to become carried away. They forget what they regard as the boring side of business— 52 that the customer remains a customer.
53 to concentrate on retaining as well as attracting customers costs business huge amounts of money annually. It has been estimated that the average company loses between 10 and 30 per cent of its customers every years. In constantly changing 54 , this is not surprising. What is surprising is the fact that few companies have any idea how many customers they have lost.
Only now are organizations beginning to wake up to those lost opportunities and calculate the 55
implications. Cutting down the number of customers a company loses can make a big 56 in its performance. Research in the US found that a five per cent decrease in the number of defecting (流失的) customers led to 57 increases of between 25 and 85 per cent.
In the US,Dmino’s Pizza estimates that a regular customer is worth more than $5,000 over ten years. A customer who receives a poor quality product or service on their first visit and 58 never returns, is losing the company thousands of dollars in 59 profits (more if you consider how many people they are likely to tell about their bad experience).
The logic behind cultivating customer 60 is impossible to deny. “In practice most companies’ marketing effort is focused on getting customers, with little attention paid to 61 them”, says Adrian Payne of Cornfield University’ School of Management. “Research suggests that there is a close relationship between retaining customers and making profits. 62 customers tend to buy more, are predictable and usually cost less to service than new customers. Furthermore, they tend to be less price 63 , and may provide free word-of-mouth advertising. Retaining customers also makes it 64 for competitors to enter a market or increase their share of a market.
【題組】50 (A)in particular (B)in reality (C)at least (D) first of all
Drections: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ABC and D Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
The teacher who did the most to encourage me was, as it happened, my aunt. She was Myrtle CManigault, the wife of my mother’s brother Bill. She taught in second grade at all-black Summer School in Camden, New Jersey. Dring my childhood and youth, Aunt Myrtle encouraged me to develop every aspect of my potential, without regard for what was considered practical or possible for black females. I liked to sing; she listened to my voice and pronounced it good. I couldn’t dance; she taught me the basic dancing steps. She took me to the theatre not just children’s theatre but adult comedies and dramas—and her faith that I could appreciate adult plays was not disappointed.
My aunt also took down books from her extensive library and shared them with me. I had books at home, but they were all serious classics. Even as a child I had a strong liking for humor, and I’ll never forget the joy of discovering Dn Marquis’s Archy & Mehitabel through her.
Most important, perhaps, Aunt Myrtle provided my first opportunity to write for publication. A writer herself for one of the black newspapers, she suggested my name to the editor as a “youth columnist”. My column, begun when I was fourteen, was supposed to cover teenage social activities—and it did—but it also gave me the freedom to write on many other subjects as well as the habit of gathering material, the discipline of meeting deadlines, and, after graduation from college six years later, a solid collection of published material that carried my name and was my passport to a series of writing jobs.
Today Aunt Myrtle is still an enthusiastic supporter of her “favourite niece”. Like a diamond, she has reflected a bright, multifaceted (多面的) image of possibilities to every pupil w ho has crossed her path.
Which of the following did Aunt Myrtle do to the author during her childhood and youth?
【題組】65. (A)She lent her some serious classics. (B)She cultivated her taste for music.
(C)She discovered her talent for dancing. (D) She introduced her to adult plays.
34.【題組】67. Aunt Myrtle recommended the author to a newspaper editor mainly to ______.[来
(A)develop her capabilities for writing (B)give her a chance to collect material
(C)involve her in teenage social activities (D) offer her a series of writing jobs
35.【題組】68. We can conclude from the passage that Aunt Myrtle was a teacher who ______.
(A)trained pupils to be diligent and well-disciplined
(B)gave pupils confidence in exploiting their potential
(C)emphasized what was practical or possible for pupils.
(D) helped pupils overcome difficulties in learning
Humpback whales are sometimes called performers of the ocean. This is because they can make impressive movements when they dive. The name “humpback”, which is the common name for this whale, refers to the typical curve shape the whale’s back forms as it dives.[来
Sometimes the humpback will dive with a fantastic movement, known as a breach. Dring breaching the whale uses its powerful tail flukes to lift nearly two-thirds of its body out of the water in a giant leap. A breach might also include a sideways twist with fins stretched out like wings, as the whale reaches the height of the breach.
A humpback whale breathes air at the surface of the water through two blowholes which are located near the top of the head. It blows a double stream of water that can rise up to 4 meters above the water.
The humpback has a small dorsal fin located towards the tail flukes about two-thirds of the way down its back. Other distinguishing features include large pectoral fins, which may be up to a third of the body length, and unique black and white spots on the underside of the tail flukes. These markings are like fingerprints: no two are the same.
Humpback whales live in large groups. They communicate with each other through complex “songs”. Quick Facts[
Size: 14m~18m in length
30~50 tons in weight
Living Open ocean and shallow coastline waters
Environment: From warm tropical (热带的) waters, where they breed, to cold polar waters, where they eat.
Det: Shellfish, plants and fish of small size
Hunting: Sometimes in groups, in which several whales form a circle under the water, blowing bubbles that form a “net” around a school of fish. The fish are then forced up to the surface in a concentrated mass.
Current state: endangered; it is estimated that there are about 5000~7000 humpback whales worldwide.
【題組】69. According to Quick Facts, a humpback whale ______.
(A)cannot survive in waters near the shore
(B)doesn’t live in the same waters all the time
(C)lives mainly on underwater plants
(D) prefers to work alone when hunting food
37.【題組】70. To make a breach, a humpback whale must ______.
(A)use its tail flukes to leap out of the water (B)twist its body sideways to jump high.
(C)blow two streams of water (D) communicate with a group of humpbacks.
38.【題組】71. From the passage we can learn that a humpback whale ______.
(A)has its unique markings on it tail flukes (B)has black and white fingerprints
(C)gets its name from the way it hunts (D) is a great performer due to its songs
Human remains of ancient settlements will be reburied and lost to science under a law that threatens research into the history of humans in Britain, a group of leading archeologists (考古学家) says. In a letter addressed to the justice secretary, Ken Clarke, 40 archaeologists write of their “deep and widespread concern” about the issue. It centers on the law introduced by the Ministry of Justice in 2008 which requires all human remains unearthed in England and Wales to be reburied within two years, regardless of their age. The decision means scientists have too little time to study bones and other human remains of national and cultural significance.
“Your current requirement that all archaeologically unearthed human remains should be reburied, whether after a standard period of two years or a further special extension, is contrary to basic principles of archaeological and scientific research and of museum practice,” they write.
The law applies to any pieces of bone uncovered at around 400 dig sites, including the remains of 60 or so bodies found at Stonehenge in 2008 that date back to 3,000 BCArchaeologists have been granted a temporary extension to give them more time, but eventuallly the bones will have to be returned to the ground.
The arrangements may result in the waste of future discoveries at sites such as Happisburgh in Norfolk, where digging is continuing after the discovery of stone tools made by early humans 950,000 years ago. If human remains were found at Happisburgh, they would be the oldest in northern Europe and the first indication of what this species was. Under the current practice of the law those remains would have to be reburied and effectively destroyed. Before 2008, guidelines allowed for the proper preservation and study of bones of sufficient age and historical interest, while the Burial Act 1857 applied to more recent remains. The Ministry of Justice assured archaeologists two ye ars ago that the law was temporary, but has so far failed to revise it.
Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at Sheffield University, said: “Archaeologists have been extremely patient because we were led to believe the ministry was sorting out this problem, but we feel that we cannot wait any longer.”
The ministry has no guidelines on where or how remains should be reburied, or on what records should be kept.
【題組】72. According to the passage, scientists are unhappy with the law mainly because ______.
(A)it is only a temporary measure on the human remains
(B)it is unreasonable and thus destructive to scientific research
(C)it was introduced by the government without their knowledge
(D) it is vague about where and how to rebury human remains
40.【題組】73. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
(A)Temporary extension of two years will guarantee scientists enough time.
(B)Human remains of the oldest species were dug out at Happisburgh.
(C)Human remains will have to be reburied despite the extension of time.
(D) Scientists have been warned that the law can hardly be changed.
41.【題組】74. What can be inferred about the British law governing human remains?
(A)The Ministry of Justice did not intend it to protect human remains.
(B)The Burial Act 1857 only applied to remains uncovered before 1857.
(C)The law on human remains hasn’t changed in recent decades.
(D) The Ministry of Justice has not done enough about the law.
42.【題組】75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
(A)New discoveries should be reburied, the government demands.
(B)Research time should be extended, scientists require.
(C)Law on human remains needs thorough discussion, authorities say.
(D) Law could bury ancient secrets for ever, archeologists warn.
43..Se ction C
Drections: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need. ______
With the arrival of the age of “information economy”, intellectual work is becoming a more important source of wealth than manufacturing. Organizations in all walks of life are doing more to spread their inf ormation. So people of the Public Relations are hired to speak for them. A lot of our news is actually collected from press releases and reports of events intentionally staged for journalists. In the information age, journalists spend their time, not investigating, but passing on the words of a spokesperson.
(A)Information is presented in an entertaining way.
(B)News in the age of information
(C)Argument about individual accounts and their reliability
(D) Byour own investigative journalist
(E) Dn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.
(F). Manufacturing industry in information economy
There is a joke in the novel Scoop about the newspaper’s owner, Lord Copper. The editors can never disagree with him. When he’s right about something they answer “definitely”, and when he’s wrong they say “to some extent, Lord Copper.” It seems reasonable to suppose that, in the real world, the opinions of such powerful people still influence the journalists and editors who work for them.
In countries where the news is not officially controlled, it may be provided by commercial organizations who depend on advertising. The news has to attract viewers and maintain its audience ratings. I suspect that some stories get air-time just because there happen to be exciting pictures to show. In Britain, we have the tabloid newspapers which millions of people read simply for entertainment. There is progressively less room for historical background, or statistics, which are harder to present as a sensational story.
There is an argument that with spreading access to the internet and cheap technology for recording sound and images we will all be able to find exactly the information we want. People around the world will be able to publish their own eye-witness accounts and compete with the widely-accepted news-gatherers on equal terms. But what it will mean also is that we’ll be subjected to a still greater amount of nonsense and lies. Any web log may contain the latest information of the year, or equally, a made-up story that you will never be able to check.
Maybe the time has come to do something about it, and I don’t just mean changing your choice of TV channel or newspaper. In a world where everyone wants you to listen to their version, you only have two choices: switch off altogether or start looking for sources you can trust. The investigative journalist of the future is everyone who wants to know the truth.