1. Part II Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
A Grassroots Remedy
Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular leisure activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them instinctively heads to the park or the river. It is my profound belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.
But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees on Streatham Common, South London. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found.
The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (多动症). Those whose accommodation had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%.
A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, academic levels were raised across the entire school.
Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity.
Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School in Streatham, with its harsh tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners fantasising about wildlife.
But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.
One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places.
The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. The increasing emphasis for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality.
In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world.
Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its restorative process helps reduce anger and impulsive behaviour.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution.
We tend to look on nature conservation as some kind of favour that human beings are granting to the natural world. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damaging.
Human beings are a species of mammals (哺乳动物). For seven million years they lived on the planet as part of nature. Our ancestral selves miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a pint of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that.
We need the wild world. It is essential to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without the wild world we are not more but less civilised. Without other living things around us we are less than human.
Five ways to find harmony with the natural world
Walk: Break the rhythm of permanently being under a roof. Get off a stop earlier, make a circuit of the park at lunchtime, walk the child to and from school, get a dog, feel yourself moving in moving air, look, listen, absorb.
Sit: Take a moment, every now and then, to be still in an open space. In the garden, anywhere that’s not in the office, anywhere out of the house, away from the routine. Sit under a tree, look at water, feel refreshed, ever so slightly renewed.
Drink: The best way to enjoy the natural world is by yourself; the second best way is in company. Take a drink outside with a good person, a good gathering: talk with the sun and the wind with birdsong for background.
Learn: Expand your boundaries. Learn five species of bird, five butterflies, five trees, five bird songs. That way, you see and hear more: and your mind responds gratefully to the greater amount of wildness in your life.
Travel: The places you always wanted to visit: by the seaside, in the country, in the hills. Take a weekend break, a day-trip, get out there and do it: for the scenery, for the way through the woods, for the birds, for the bees. Go somewhere special and bring specialness home. It lasts forever, after all.
注意：此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。 【題組】1. What is the author’s profound belief?
[ (A)] People instinctively seek nature in different ways.
[ (B)]People should spend most of their lives in the wild.
[ (C)]People have quite different perceptions of nature.
[ (D)] People must make more efforts to study nature.
3.【題組】3. What does a study in Sweden show?
[ (A)] The natural environment can help children learn better.
[ (B)] More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.
[ (C)] A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities.
[ (D)] Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD.
4.【題組】4. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________.
[ (A)] tend to develop a strong love for science
[ (B)] are more likely to fantasise about wildlife
[ (C)] tend to be physically tougher in adulthood
[ (D)] are less likely to be involved in bullying
5.【題組】5. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD?
[ (A)] Find more effective drugs for them.
[ (B)] Provide more green spaces for them.
[ (C)] Place them under more personal care.
[ (D)] (E)ngage them in more meaningful activities.
6.【題組】6. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature?
[ (A)] They look on life optimistically.
[ (C)] They are able to live longer.
[ (B)] They enjoy a life of better quality.
[ (D)] They become good-humoured.
7.【題組】7. Dr William Bird suggests in his study that ________.
[ (A)] humanity and nature are complementary to each other
[ (B)] wild places may induce impulsive behaviour in people
[ (C)] access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence
[ (D)] it takes a long time to restore nature once damaged
8. Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job. For some industrial scientists, however, the attractions of academia (学术界) outweigh any financial considerations.
Helen Lee took a 70% cut in salary when she moved from a senior post in Abbott Laboratories to a medical department at the University of Cambridge. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions. Some areas of inquiry have few prospects of a commercial return, and Lee’s is one of them.
The impact of a salary cut is probably less severe for a scientist in the early stages of a career. Guy Grant, now a research associate at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge, spent two years working for a pharmaceutical (制药的) company before returning to university as a post-doctoral researcher. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.
Higher up the ladder, where a pay cut is usually more significant, the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry is forcing universities to make the transition (转换) to academia more attractive, according to Lee. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplinary team, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate, says Lee, perhaps experience in manufacturing practice or product development. “Only a small number of undergraduates will continue in an academic career. So someone leaving university who already has the skills needed to work in an industrial lab has far more potential in the job market than someone who has spent all their time on a narrow research project.”
注意： 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 【題組】57. By “a one-way street” (Line 1, Para. 1), the author means ________.
[ (A)] university researchers know little about the commercial world
[ (B)] there is little exchange between industry and academia
[ (C)] few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university
[ (D)] few university professors are willing to do industrial research
9.【題組】58. The word “deterrent” (Line 2, Para. 1) most probably refers to something that ________.
[ (A)] keeps someone from taking action
[ (C)] attracts people’s attention
[ (B)] helps to move the traffic
[ (D)] brings someone a financial burden
10.【題組】59. What was Helen Lee’s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career?
[ (A)] Flexible work hours.
[ (C)] Her preference for the lifestyle on campus.
[ (B)] Her research interests.
[ (D)] Prospects of academic accomplishments.
11.【題組】60. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to ________.
[ (A)] do financially more rewarding work
[ (B)] raise his status in the academic world
[ (C)] enrich his experience in medical research
[ (D)] exploit better intellectual opportunities
12.【題組】61. What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university?
[ (A)] Increase its graduates’ competitiveness in the job market.
[ (B)] Develop its students’ potential in research.
[ (C)] Help it to obtain financial support from industry.
[ (D)] Gear its research towards practical applications.
13. Passage Two
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.
Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn’t smoke. There’s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse’s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.
So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.
A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: “People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”
注意： 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 【題組】62. William Farr’s study and other studies show that _________.
[ (A)] social life provides an effective cure for illness
[ (B)] being sociable helps improve one’s quality of life
[ (C)] women benefit more than men from marriage
[ (D)] marriage contributes a great deal to longevity
14.【題組】63. Linda Waite’s studies support the idea that _________.
[ (A)] older men should quit smoking to stay healthy
[ (B)] marriage can help make up for ill health
[ (C)] the married are happier than the unmarried
[ (D)] unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life
15.【題組】64. It can be inferred from the context that the “flip side” (Line 4, Para. 2) refers to _________.
[ (A)] the disadvantages of being married
[ (B)] the emotional problems arising from marriage
[ (C)] the responsibility of taking care of one’s family
[ (D)] the consequence of a broken marriage
16.【題組】65. What does the author say about social networks?
[ (A)] They have effects similar to those of a marriage.
[ (B)] They help develop people’s community spirit.
[ (C)] They provide timely support for those in need.
[ (D)] They help relieve people of their life’s burdens.
17.【題組】66. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[ (A)] It’s important that we develop a social network when young.
[ (B)] To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.
[ (C)] Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span.
[ (D)] We should share our social networks with each other.