1. Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). For questions 8-10, complete the sen tences with the information given in the passage.
American universities are accepting more minorities than ever. Graduating them is another matter.
Barry Mills, the president of Bowdoin College, was justifiably proud of Bowdoin's efforts to recruit minority students. Since 2003 the small, elite liberal arts school in Brunswick, Maine, has boosted the proportion of so-called under-represented minority students in entering freshman classes from 8% to 13%. "It is our responsibility to reach out and attract students to come to our kinds of places," he told a NEWSWEEK reporter. But Bowdoin has not done quite as well when it comes to actually graduating minorities. While 9 out of 10 white students routinely get their diplomas within six years, only 7 out of 10 black students made it to graduation day in several recent classes.
"If you look at who enters college, it now looks like America," says Hilary Pennington, director of postsecondary programs for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which has closely studied enrollment patterns in higher education. "But if you look at who walks across the stage for a diploma, it's still largely the white, upper-income population."
The United States once had the highest graduation rate of any nation. Now it stands 10th. For the first time in American history, there is the risk that the rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one. The graduation rate among 25- to 34-year-olds is no better than the rate for the 55- to 64-year-olds who were going to college more than 30 years ago. Studies show that more and more poor and non-white students want to graduate from college – but their graduation rates fall far short of their dreams. The graduation rates for blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans lag far behind the graduation rates for whites and Asians. As the minority population grows in the United States, low college graduation rates become a threat to national prosperity.
The problem is pronounced at public universities. In 2007 the University of Wisconsin-Madison – one of the top five or so prestigious public universities – graduated 81% of its white students within six years, but only 56% of its blacks. At less-selective state schools, the numbers get worse. During the same time frame, the University of Northern Iowa graduated 67% of its white students, but only 39% of its blacks. Community colleges have low graduation rates generally – but rock-bottom rates for minorities. A recent review of California community colleges found that while a third of the Asian students picked up their degrees, only 15% of African-Americans did so as well.
Private colleges and universities generally do better, partly because they offer smaller classes and more personal attention. But when it comes to a significant graduation gap, Bowdoin has company. Nearby Colby College logged an 18-point difference between white and black graduates in 2007 and 25 points in 2006. Middlebury College in Vermont, another top school, had a 19-point gap in 2007 and a 22-point gap in 2006. The most selective private schools – Harvard, Yale, and Princeton – show almost no gap between black and white graduation rates. But that may have more to do with their ability to select the best students. According to data gathered by Harvard Law School professor Lani Guinier, the most selective schools are more likely to choose blacks who have at least one immigrant parent from Africa or the Caribbean than black students who are descendants of American slaves.
"Higher education has been able to duck this issue for years, particularly the more selective schools, by saying the responsibility is on the individual student," says Pennington of the Gates Foundation. "If they fail, it's their fault." Some critics blame affirmative action – students admitted with lower test scores and grades from shaky high schools often struggle at elite schools. But a bigger problem may be that poor high schools often send their students to colleges for which they are "undermatched": they could get into more elite, richer schools, but instead go to community colleges and low-rated state schools that lack the resources to help them. Some schools out for profit cynically increase tuitions and count on student loans and federal aid to foot the bill – knowing full well that the students won't make it. "The school keeps the money, but the kid leaves with loads of debt and no degree and no ability to get a better job. Colleges are not holding up their end," says Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust.
A college education is getting ever more expensive. Since 1982 tuitions have been rising at roughly twice the rate of inflation. In 2008 the net cost of attending a four-year public university – after financial aid – equaled 28% of median (中间的)family income, while a four-year private university cost 76% of median family income. More and more scholarships are based on merit, not need. Poorer students are not always the best-informed consumers. Often they wind up deeply in debt or simply unable to pay after a year or two and must drop out.
There once was a time when universities took pride in their dropout rates. Professors would begin the year by saying, "Look to the right and look to the left. One of you is not going to be here by the end of the year." But such a Darwinian spirit is beginning to give way as at least a few colleges face up to the graduation gap. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the gap has been roughly halved over the last three years. The university has poured resources into peer counseling to help students from inner-city schools adjust to the rigor (严格要求)and faster pace of a university classroom –and also to help minority students overcome the stereotype that they are less qualified. Wisconsin has a "laserlike focus" on building up student skills in the first three months, according to vice provost (教务长)Damon Williams.
State and federal governments could sharpen that focus everywhere by broadly publishing minority graduation rates. For years private colleges such as Princeton and MIT have had success bringing minorities onto campus in the summer before freshman year to give them some prepara tory courses. The newer trend is to start recruiting poor and non-white students as early as the seventh grade, using innovative tools to identify kids with sophisticated verbal skills. Such pro grams can be expensive, of course, but cheap compared with the millions already invested in scholarships and grants for kids who have little chance to graduate without special support.
With effort and money, the graduation gap can be closed. Washington and Lee is a small, selective school in Lexington, Va. Its student body is less than 5% black and less than 2% Latino. While the school usually graduated about 90% of its whites, the graduation rate of its blacks and Latinos had dipped to 63% by 2007. "We went through a dramatic shift," says Dawn Watkins, the vice president for student affairs. The school aggressively pushed mentoring (辅导) of minorities by other students and "partnering" with parents at a special pre-enrollment session. The school had its first-ever black homecoming. Last spring the school graduated the same proportion of minorities as it did whites. If the United States wants to keep up in the global economic race, it will have to pay systematic attention to graduating minorities, not just enrolling them.
What is the author's main concern about American higher education?
(A) The small proportion of minority students.
(B) The low graduation rates of minority students.
(C) The growing conflicts among ethnic groups.
(D) The poor academic performance of students.
2.【題組】2. What was the pride of President Barry Mills of Bowdoin College?
(A) The prestige of its liberal arts programs.
(B) Its ranking among universities in Maine.
(C) The high graduation rates of its students.
(D) Its increased enrollment of minority students.
3.【題組】3. What is the risk facing America?
(A) Its schools will be overwhelmed by the growing number of illegal immigrants.
(B) The rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one.
(C) More poor and non-white students will be denied access to college.
(D) It is going to lose its competitive edge in higher education.
4.【題組】4. How many African-American students earned their degrees in California community colleges according to a recent review?
(A) Fifty-six percent. (C) Fifteen percent.
(B) Thirty-nine percent. (D) Sixty-seven percent.
5.【題組】5. Harvard, Yale, and Princeton show almost no gap between black and white graduation rates mainly because .
(A) their students work harder (C) their classes are generally smaller
(B) they recruit the best students (D) they give students more attention
6.【題組】6. How does Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust view minority students' failure to get a degree?
(A) Universities are to blame.
(B) Students don't work hard.
(C) The government fails to provide the necessary support.
(D) Affirmative action should be held responsible.
7.【題組】7. Why do some students drop out after a year or two according to the author?
(A) They have lost confidence in themselves.
(B) They cannot afford the high tuition.
(C) They cannot adapt to the rigor of the school.
(D) They fail to develop interest in their studies.
8. Section A
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the correspond ing letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
(A) She will give him the receipt later.
(B) The man should make his own copies.
(C) She has not got the man's copies ready.
(D) The man forgot to make the copies for her.
10.【題組】13. (A) Mark is not fit to take charge of the Student Union.
(B) Mark is the best candidate for the post of chairman.
(C) It won't be easy for Mark to win the election.
(D) Females are more competitive than males in elections.
12.【題組】15. (A) Just make use of whatever information is available.
(B) Put more effort into preparing for the presentation.
(C) Find more relevant information for their work.
(D) Simply raise the issue in their presentation.
13.【題組】16. (A) The man has decided to choose Language Studies as his major.
(B) The woman isn't interested in the psychology of language.
(C) The man is still trying to sign up for the course he is interested in.
(D) The woman isn't qualified to take the course the man mentioned.
15.【題組】18. (A) They are in desperate need of financial assistance.
(B) They hope to do miracles with limited resources.
(C) They want to borrow a huge sum from the bank.
(D) They plan to buy out their business partners.
16. Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 【題組】19.
(A) We simply cannot help reacting instinctively that way.
(B) We wish to hide our indifference to their misfortune.
(C) We derive some humorous satisfaction from their misfortune.
(D) We think it serves them right for being mean to other people.
17.【題組】20. (A) They want to show their genuine sympathy.
(B) They have had similar personal experiences.
(C) They don't know how to cope with the situation.
(D) They don't want to reveal their own frustration.
18.【題組】21. (A) They themselves would like to do it but don't dare to.
(B) It's an opportunity for relieving their tension.
(C) It's a rare chance for them to see the boss lose face.
(D) They have seen this many times in old films.
20.Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 【題組】23.
(A) Smuggling drugs into Hong Kong. (C) Stealing a fellow passenger's bag.
(B) Having committed armed robbery. (D) Bringing a handgun into Hong Kong.
21.【題組】24. (A) He said not a single word during the entire flight.
(B) He took away Kumar's baggage while he was asleep.
(C) He was travelling on a scholarship from Delhi University.
(D) He is suspected of having slipped something in Kumar's bag.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A) They think travel has become a trend.
(B) They think travel gives them their money's worth.
(C) They find many of the banks untrustworthy.
(D) They lack the expertise to make capital investments.
24.【題組】27. (A) Lower their prices to attract more customers.
(B) Introduce travel packages for young travelers.
(C) Design programs targeted at retired couples.
(D) Launch a new program of adventure trips.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 【題組】29.
(A) The old stereotypes about men and women.
(B) The changing roles played by men and women.
(C) The division of labor between men and women.
(D) The widespread prejudice against women.
28.【題組】31. (A) To prove that she could earn her living as a gardener.
(B) To show that women are more hardworking than men.
(C) To show that women are capable of doing what men do.
(D) To prove that she was really irritated with her husband.
29.. Passage Three
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 【題組】32
(A) Covering major events of the day in the city.
(B) Reporting criminal offenses in Greenville.
(C) Hunting news for the daily headlines.
(D) Writing articles on family violence.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
At the heart of the debate over illegal immigration lies one key question: are immigrants good or bad for the economy? The American public overwhelmingly thinks they're bad. Yet the consensus among most economists is that immigration, both legal and illegal, provides a small net boost to the economy. Immigrants provide cheap labor, lower the prices of everything from farm produce to new homes, and leave consumers with a little more money in their pockets. So why is there such a discrepancy between the perception of immigrants' impact on the economy and the reality?
There are a number of familiar theories. Some argue that people are anxious and feel threatened by an inflow of new workers. Others highlight the strain that undocumented immigrants place on public services, like schools, hospitals, and jails. Still others emphasize the role of race, arguing that foreigners add to the nation's fears and insecurities. There's some truth to all these explanations, but they aren't quite sufficient.
To get a better understanding of what's going on, consider the way immigration's impact is felt. Though its overall effect may be positive, its costs and benefits are distributed unevenly. David Card, an economist at UC Berkeley, notes that the ones who profit most directly from immigrants' low-cost labor are businesses and employers – meatpacking plants in Nebraska, for instance, or agricultural businesses in California. Granted, these producers' savings probably translate into lower prices at the grocery store, but how many consumers make that mental connection at the checkout counter? As for the drawbacks of illegal immigration, these, too, are concentrated. Native low-skilled workers suffer most from the competition of foreign labor. According to a study by George Borjas, a Harvard economist, immigration reduced the wages of American high-school dropouts by 9% between 1980-2000.
Among high-skilled, better-educated employees, however, opposition was strongest in states with both high numbers of immigrants and relatively generous social services. What worried them most, in other words, was the fiscal (财政的)burden of immigration. That conclusion was reinforced by another finding: that their opposition appeared to soften when that fiscal burden decreased, as occurred with welfare reform in the 1990s, which curbed immigrants' access to certain benefits.
The irony is that for all the overexcited debate, the net effect of immigration is minimal. Even for those most acutely affected – say, low-skilled workers, or California residents – the impact isn't all that dramatic. "The unpleasant voices have tended to dominate our perceptions," says Daniel Tichenor, a political science professor at the University of Oregon. "But when all those factors are put together and the economists calculate the numbers, it ends up being a net positive, but a small one." Too bad most people don't realize it.
What can we learn from the first paragraph?
(A) Whether immigrants are good or bad for the economy has been puzzling economists.
(B) The American economy used to thrive on immigration but now it's a different story.
(C) The consensus among economists is that immigration should not be encouraged.
(D) The general public thinks differently from most economists on the impact of immigration.
34.【題組】53. In what way does the author think ordinary Americans benefit from immigration?
(A) They can access all kinds of public services.
(B) They can get consumer goods at lower prices.
(C) They can mix with people of different cultures.
(D) They can avoid doing much of the manual labor.
35.【題組】54. Why do native low-skilled workers suffer most from illegal immigration?
(A) They have greater difficulty getting welfare support.
(B) They are more likely to encounter interracial conflicts.
(C) They have a harder time getting a job with decent pay.
(D) They are no match for illegal immigrants in labor skills.
36.【題組】55. What is the chief concern of native high-skilled, better-educated employees about the inflow of immigrants?
(A) It may change the existing social structure.
(B) It may pose a threat to their economic status.
(C) It may lead to social instability in the country.
(D) It may place a great strain on the state budget.
37.【題組】56. What is the irony about the debate over immigration?
(A) Even economists can't reach a consensus about its impact.
(B) Those who are opposed to it turn out to benefit most from it.
(C) People are making too big a fuss about something of small impact.
(D) There is no essential difference between seemingly opposite opinions.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Picture a typical MBA lecture theatre twenty years ago. In it the majority of students will have conformed to the standard model of the time: male, middle class and Western. Walk into a class today, however, and you'll get a completely different impression. For a start, you will now see plenty more women – the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, for example, boasts that 40% of its new enrolment is female. You will also see a wide range of ethnic groups and nationals of practically every country.
It might be tempting, therefore, to think that the old barriers have been broken down and equal opportunity achieved. But, increasingly, this apparent diversity is becoming a mask for a new type of conformity. Behind the differences in sex, skin tones and mother tongues, there are common attitudes, expectations and ambitions which risk creating a set of clones among the business leaders of the future.
Diversity, it seems, has not helped to address fundamental weaknesses in business leadership. So what can be done to create more effective managers of the commercial world? According to Valerie Gauthier, associate dean at HEC Paris, the key lies in the process by which MBA programmes recruit their students. At the moment candidates are selected on a fairly narrow set of criteria such as prior academic and career performance, and analytical and problem solving abilities. This is then coupled to a school's picture of what a diverse class should look like, with the result that passport, ethnic origin and sex can all become influencing factors. But schools rarely dig down to find out what really makes an applicant succeed, to create a class which also contains diversity of attitude and approach – arguably the only diversity that, in a business context, really matters.
Professor Gauthier believes schools should not just be selecting candidates from traditional sectors such as banking, consultancy and industry. They should also be seeking individuals who have backgrounds in areas such as political science, the creative arts, history or philosophy, which will allow them to put business decisions into a wider context.
Indeed, there does seem to be a demand for the more rounded leaders such diversity might create. A study by Mannaz, a leadership development company, suggests that, while the bully-boy chief executive of old may not have been eradicated completely, there is a definite shift in emphasis towards less tough styles of management – at least in America and Europe. Perhaps most significant, according to Mannaz, is the increasing interest large companies have in more collaborative management models, such as those prevalent in Scandinavia, which seek to integrate the hard and soft aspects of leadership and encourage delegated responsibility and accountability.
What characterises the business school student population of today?
(A) Greater diversity. (C) Exceptional diligence.
(B) Intellectual maturity. (D) Higher ambition.
39.【題組】58. What is the author's concern about current business school education?
(A) It will arouse students' unrealistic expectations.
(B) It will produce business leaders of a uniform style.
(C) It focuses on theory rather than on practical skills.
(D) It stresses competition rather than cooperation.
40.【題組】59. What aspect of diversity does Valerie Gauthier think is most important?
(A) Age and educational background. (C) Attitude and approach to business.
(B) Social and professional experience. (D) Ethnic origin and gender.
41.【題組】60. What applicants does the author think MBA programmes should consider recruiting?
(A) Applicants with prior experience in business companies.
(B) Applicants with sound knowledge in math and statistics.
(C) Applicants from outside the traditional sectors.
(D) Applicants from less developed regions and areas.
42.【題組】61. What does Mannaz say about the current management style?
(A) It is eradicating the tough aspects of management.
(B) It encourages male and female executives to work side by side.
(C) It adopts the bully-boy chief executive model.
(D) It is shifting towards more collaborative models.
43.Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Organised volunteering and work experience has long been a vital companion to university degree courses. Usually it is left to __62__ to deduce the potential from a list of extracurricular adventures on a graduate's resume, __63__ now the University of Bristol has launched an award to formalise the achievements of students who __64__ time to activities outside their courses. Bristol PLuS aims to boost students in an increasingly __65__ job market by helping them acquire work and life skills alongside __66__ qualifications.
"Our students are a pretty active bunch, but we found that they didn't __67__ appreciate the value of what they did __68__ the lecture hall," says Jeff Goodman, director of careers and employability at the university. "Employers are much more __69__ than they used to be. They used to look for __70__ and saw it as part of their job to extract the value of an applicant's skills. Now they want students to be able to explain why those skills are __71__ to the job."
Students who sign __72__ for the award will be expected to complete 50 hours of work experience or __73__ work, attend four workshops on employ-ability skills, take part in an intensive skills-related activity __74__, crucially, write a summary of the skills they have gained. __75__ efforts will gain an Outstanding Achievement Award. Those who __76__ best on the sports field can take the Sporting PLuS Award which fosters employer-friendly sports accomplishments.
The experience does not have to be __77__ organised. "We're not just interested in easily identifiable skills," says Goodman. " __78__ , one student took the lead in dealing with a difficult landlord and so __79__ negotiation skills. We try to make the experience relevant to individual lives."
Goodman hopes the __80__ will enable active students to fill in any gaps in their experience and encourage their less-active __81__ to take up activities outside their academic area of work. 【題組】62.
(A) advisors (B) specialists (C) critics (D) employers