101 年 - 2012年上海高考真题（英语）#13314
1.25.II. Grammar and Vocabulary
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C ，and D，. Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence.
passion, people won't have the motivation or the joy necessary for creative thinking.
2.26. Is honesty the best policy? We _ that it is when we are little.
(D)will be taught
3.27. AJack left his membership card at home, he wasn't allowed into the sports club.
4.28. The new law states that people ________ drive after drinking alcohol.
5.29. Only with the greatest of luck _ to escape from the rising flood waters.
(C)did she manage
(D)she did manage
6.30. — I hear that Jason is planning to buy a car.
— I know. Bnext month, he _ enough for a used one.
(A)will have saved
(B)will be saving
7.31. When he took his gloves off, I noticed that one had his name written inside.
8.32. I have a tight budget for the trip, so I'm not going to fly _ the airlines lower ticket prices.
9.33. When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble _ the right things to say.
(B)to think of
10.34. There is much truth in the idea _ kindness is usually served by frankness.
11.35. Have you sent thank-you notes to the relatives from _ _ you received gifts?
12.36. The club, _ _ 25 years ago, is holding a party for past and present members.
(D)to be founded
13.37. — Was it by cutting down staff _ _she saved the firm?
— No, it was by improving work efficiency.
14.38. —We've only got this small bookcase. Will that do?
— No, _ _ I am looking for is something much bigger and stronger.
15.39. "Genius" is a complicated concept, _ _ many different factors.
16.40. The map is one of the best tools a man has _ _ he goes to a new place.
17.III. Reading Comprehension
Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked ABC and D Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
People on a college campus were more likely to give money to the March of Dimes if they were asked for a donation by a disabled woman in a wheelchair than if asked by a nondisabled woman. In another 50 , subway riders in New York saw a man carrying a stick stumble（绊脚） and fall to the floor. Sometimes the victim had a large red birthmark on his 51 ; sometimes he did not. In this situation, the victim was more likely to 52 aid if his face was spotless than if he had an unattractive birthmark. In 53 these and other research findings, two themes are 54 : we are more willing to help people we like for some reason and people we think 55 assistance.
In some situations, those who are physically attractive are more likely to receive aid. 56 , in a field study researchers placed a completed application to graduate school in a telephone box at the airport. The application was ready to be 57 , but had apparently been "lost". The photo attached to the application was sometimes that of a very 58 person and sometimes that of a less attractive person. The measure of helping was whether the individual who found the envelope actually mailed it or not. Results showed that people were more likely to 59 the application if the person in the photo was physically attractive.
The degree of 60 between the potential helper and the person in need is also important. For example, people are more likely to help a stranger who is from the same country rather than a foreigner. In one study, shoppers on a busy street in Scotland were more likely to help a person wearing a(n) 61 T-shirt than a person wearing a T-shirt printed with offensive words.
Whether a person receives help depends in part on the "worth" of the case. For example, shoppers in a supermarket were more likely to give someone. 62 to buy milk rather than to buy cookies, probably because milk is thought more essential for 63 than cookies. Passengers on a New York subway were more likely to help a man who fell to the ground if he appeared to be 64 rather than drunk.
Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ABC and DChoose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
Phil White has just returned from an 18,000-mile, around-the-world bicycle trip. White had two reasons for making this epic journey. First of all, he wanted to use the trip to raise money for charity, which he did. He raised ~70,000 for the British charity, Oxfam. White's second reason for making the trip was to break the world record and become the fastest person to cycle around the world. He is still waiting to find out if he has broken the record or not.
White set off from Trafalgar Square, in London, on 19th June 2004 and was back 299 days later. He spent more than l,300 hours in the saddle（车座）and destroyed four sets of tyres and three bike chains. He had the adventure of his life crossing Europe, the Middle East, India, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Americas. Amazingly, he did all of this with absolutely no support team. No jeep carrying food, water and medicine. No doctor. Nothing! Just a bike and a very, very long road.
The journey was lonely and desperate at times. He also had to fight his way across deserts, through jungles and over mountains. He cycled through heavy rains and temperatures of up to 45 degrees, all to help people in need. There were other dangers along the road. In Iran, he was chased by armed robbers and was lucky to escape with his life and the little money he had. The worst thing that happened to him was having
to cycle into a headwind on a road that crosses the south of Australia. For 1,000 kilometres he battled against the wind that was constantly pushing him. This part of the trip was slow, hard work and depressing, but he made it in the end. Now Mr. White is back and intends to write a book about his adventures.
【題組】65.When Phil White returned from his trip, he________.
(A)broke the world record
(B)collected money for Oxfam
(C)destroyed several bikes
(D)travelled about 1,300 hours
33.【題組】66. What does the word "epic" in Paragraph l most probably mean
(A)Very slow but exciting.
(B)Very long and difficult.
(C)Very smooth but tiring.
(D)Very lonely and depressing.
34.【題組】67. During his journey around the world, Phil White _______.
(A)fought heroically against robbers in Iran
(B)experienced the extremes of heat and cold
(C)managed to ride against the wind in Australia
(D)had a team of people who travelled with him
35.【題組】68. Which of the following words can best describe Phil White?
The value-packed, all-inclusive
sight-seeing package that
combines the best of Sydney's
harbour, city, bay and beach
A SydneyPass gives you unlimited and flexible travel on the Explorer Buses: the 'red' Sydney Explorer shows you around our exciting city sights while the 'blue' Bondi Explorer visits Sydney Harbour bays and famous beaches. Take to the water on one of three magnificent daily harbour cruises(游船). You can also travel free on regular Sydney Buses, Sydney Ferries or CityRail services (limited area), so you can go to every corner of this beautiful city.
Imagine browsing at Darling Harbour, sampling the famous seafood at Watsons Bay or enjoying the city lights on an evening ferry cruise. The possibilities and plans are endless with a SydneyPass. Wherever you decide to go, remember that bookings are not required on any of our services so tickets are treated on a first in, first seated basis.
SydneyPasses are available for 3, 5 0r 7 days for use over a 7 calendar day period. With a 3 or 5 day pass you choose on which days out of the 7 you want to use it.
All SydneyPasses include a free Airport Express inward trip before starting your 3, 5 or 7 days, and the return trip is valid (有效的) for 2 months from the first day your ticket was used.
*A child is defined as anyone from the ages of 4 years to under 16 years. Children under 4 years travel free.
**A family is defined as 2 adults and any number of children from 4 to under 16 years of age from the same family.
【題組】69.A SydneyPass doesn’t offer unlimited rides on ______.
(A)the Explorer Buses
(B)the harbour cruises
(C)regular Sydney Buses
37.【題組】70. With a SydneyPass, a traveller can________.
(A)save fares from and to the airport
(B)take the Sydney Explorer to beaches
(C)enjoy the famous seafood for free
(D)reserve seats easily in a restaurant
38.【題組】71. If 5-day tickets were to be recommended to a mother who travelled with her colleague and her children, aged 3, 6 and 10, what would the lowest cost be?
Researchers in the psychology department at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLAhave discovered a major difference in the way men and women respond to stress. This difference may explain why men are more likely to suffer from stress-related disorders.
Until now, psychological research has maintained that both men and women have the same "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress. In other words, individuals either react with aggressive behavior, such as verbal or physical conflict ("fight"), or they react by withdrawing from the stressful situation ("flight"). However, the UCLA research team found that men and women have quite different biological and behavioral responses to stress. While men often react to stress in the fight-or-flight response, women often have another kind of reaction which could be called "tend and befriend." That is, they often react to stressful conditions by protecting and nurturing their young ("tend"), and by looking for social contact and support from others - especially other females ('befriend").
Scientists have long known that in the fight-or- flight reaction to stress, an important role is played by certain hormones(激素) released by the body. The UCLA research team suggests that the female tend-or-befriend response is also based on a hormone. This hormone, called oxytocin, has been studied in the context of childbirth, but now it is being studied for its role in the response of both men and women to stress. The principal investigator, Dr. Shelley ETaylor, explained that "animals and people with high levels of oxytocin are calmer, more relaxed, more social, and less anxious." While men also secrete(分泌）oxytocin, its effects are reduced by male hormones.
In terms of everyday behavior, the UCLA study found that women are far more likely than men to seek social contact when they are feeling stressed. They may phone relatives or friends, or ask directions if they are lost.
The study also showed how fathers and mothers responded differently when they came home to their family after a stressful day at work. The typical father wanted to be left alone to enjoy some peace and quiet. For a typical mother, coping with a bad day at work meant focusing her attention on her children and their needs.
The differences in responding to stress may explain the fact that women have lower frequency of stress-related disorders such as high blood pressure or aggressive behavior. The tend-and-befriend regulatory(调节的) system may protect women against stress, and this may explain why women on average live longer than men.
【題組】72The UCLA study shows that in response to stress, men are more likely than women to _____ .
(A)turn to friends for help
(B)solve a conflict calmly
(C)find an escape from reality
(D)seek comfort from children
40.【題組】73. Which of the following is true about oxytocin according to the passage?
(A)Men have the same level of oxytocin as women do.
(B)Oxytocin used to be studied in both men and women.
(C)Both animals and people have high levels of oxytocin.
(D)Oxytocin has more of an effect on women than on men.
41.【題組】74. What can be learned from the passage?
(A)Male hormones help build up the body's resistance to stress.
(B)In a family a mother cares more about children than a father does.
(C)Biological differences lead to different behavioral responses to stress.
(D)The UCLA study was designed to confirm previous research findings.
42.【題組】75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
(A)How men and women get over stress
(B)How men and women suffer from stress
(C)How researchers overcome stress problems
(D)How researchers handle stress-related disorders
Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
(A)When a child should learn to read
(B)Whether reading early promises later achievements
(C)What if a child has reading problems
(D)How you prepare a young child for reading