101 年 - 2012年6月大学英语四级考试真题#12791
1.Small Schools Rising
This year’s list of the top 100 high schools shows that today, those with fewer students are flourishing.
Fifty years ago, they were the latest thing in educational reform: big, modern, suburban high schools with students counted in the thousands. As baby boomers(二战后
婴儿潮时期出生的人) came of high-school age, big schools promised economic efficiency. A greater choice of courses, and, of course, better football teams. Only years
later did we understand the trade-offs this involved: the creation of excessive bureaucracies(官僚机构)，the difficulty of forging personal connections between teachers
and students.SAT scores began dropping in 1963;today,on average,30% of students do not complete high school in four years, a figure that rises to 50% in poor urban
neighborhoods. While the emphasis on teaching to higher, test-driven standards as set in No Child Left Behind resulted in significantly better performance in
elementary(and some middle)schools, high schools for a variety of reasons seemed to have made little progress.
Size isn’t everything, but it does matter, and the past decade has seen a noticeable countertrend toward smaller schools. This has been due ,in part ,to the Bill
and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has invested $1.8 billion in American high schools, helping to open about 1,000 small schools-most of them with about 400 kids each
with an average enrollment of only 150 per grade, About 500 more are on the drawing board. Districts all over the country are taking notice, along with mayors in cities
like New York, Chicago and San Diego. The movement includes independent public charter schools, such as No.1 BASIS in Tucson, with only 120 high-schoolers and 18
graduates this year. It embraces district-sanctioned magnet schools, such as the Talented and Gifted School, with 198 students, and the Science and Engineering
Magnet,with383,which share a building in Dallas, as well as the City Honors School in Buffalo, N.Y., which grew out of volunteer evening seminars for students. And it
includes alternative schools with students selected by lottery(抽签)，such as H-B Woodlawn in Arlington, Va. And most noticeable of all, there is the phenomenon of
large urban and suburban high schools that have split up into smaller units of a few hundred, generally housed in the same grounds that once boasted thousands of
students all marching to the same band.
Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, Calif, is one of those, ranking No.423—among the top 2% in the country—on Newsweek’s annual ranking of America’s top high
schools. The success of small schools is apparent in the listings. Ten years ago, when the first Newsweek list based on college-level test participation was published,
only three of the top 100 schools had graduating Classes smaller than 100 students. This year there are 22. Nearly 250 schools on the full ,Newsweek list of the top 5%
of schools nationally had fewer than 200 graduates in 2007.
Although many of Hillsdale’s students came from wealthy households, by the late 1990 average test scores were sliding and it had earned the unaffectionate nickname
(绰号) “Hillsjail. ” Jeff Gilbert. A Hillsdale teacher who became principal last year, remembers sitting with other teachers watching students file out of a
graduation ceremony and asking one another in astonishment, “How did that student graduate?”
So in 2003 Hillsdale remade itself into three “houses,” romantically named Florence, Marrakech and Kyoto. Each of the 300 arriving ninth graders are randomly(随机
地) assigned to one of the houses. Where they will keep the same four core subject teachers for two years, before moving on to another for 11th and 12th grades. The
closeness this system cultivates is reinforced by the institution of “advisory” classes Teachers meet with students in groups of 25, five mornings a week, for open-
ended discussions of everything from homework problems to bad Saturday-night dates. The advisers also meet with students privately and stay in touch with parents, so
they are deeply invested in the students’ success.“We’re constantly talking about one another’s advisers,” says English teacher Chris Crockett. “If you hear that
yours isn’t doing well in math, or see them sitting outside the dean’s office, it’s like a personal failure.” Along with the new structure came a more demanding
academic program, the percentage of freshmen taking biology jumped from 17 to 95.“It was rough for some. But by senior year, two-thirds have moved up to physics,”
says Gilbert “Our kids are coming to school in part because they know there are adults here who know them and care for them.”But not all schools show advances after
downsizing, and it remains to be seen whether smaller schools will be a cure-all solution.
The Newsweek list of top U.S. high schools was made this year, as in years past, according to a single metric, the proportion of students taking college-level
exams. Over the years this system has come in for its share of criticism for its simplicity. But that is also its strength: it’s easy for readers to understand, and to
do the arithmetic for their own schools if they’d like.
Ranking schools is always controversial, and this year a group of 38 superintendents(地区教育主管)from five states wrote to ask that their schools be excluded from
the calculation.“It is impossible to know which high schools are ‘the best’ in the nation, ”their letter read. in part. “Determining whether different schools do
or don’t offer a high quality of education requires a look at man different measures, including students’ overall academic accomplishments and their subsequent
performance in college. And taking into consideration the unique needs of their communities.”
In the end, the superintendents agreed to provide the data we sought, which is, after all, public information. There is, in our view, no real dispute here, we are
all seeking the same thing, which is schools that better serve our children and our nation by encouraging students to tackle tough subjects under the guidance of gifted
teachers. And if we keep working toward that goal, someday, perhaps a list won’t be necessary.
【題組】1. Fifty years ago. big. Modern. Suburban high schools were established in the hope of __________.
(A) ensuring no child is left behind
(B)increasing economic efficiency
(C) improving students’ performance on SAT
(D)providing good education for baby boomers
2.【題組】2. What happened as a result of setting up big schools?
(A)Teachers’ workload increased.
(B)Students’ performance declined.
(C)Administration became centralized.
(D)Students focused more on test scores.
3.【題組】3.What is said about the schools forded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation?
(A)They are usually magnet schools.
(B)They are often located in poor neighborhoods.
(C)They are popular with high-achieving students.
(D)They are mostly small in size.
4.【題組】4.What is most noticeable about the current trend in high school education?
(A)Some large schools have split up into smaller ones.
(B)A great variety of schools have sprung up in urban and suburban areas.
(C)Many schools compete for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funds.
(D)Students have to meet higher academic standards.
5.【題組】5.Newsweek ranked high schools according to .
(A)their students’ academic achievement
(B)the number of their students admitted to college
(C)the size and number of their graduating classes
(D)their college-level test participation
6.【題組】6.What can we learn about Hillsdale’s students in the late 1990s?
(A)They were made to study hard like prisoners.
(B)They called each other by unaffectionate nicknames.
(C)Most of them did not have any sense of discipline,
(D)Their school performance was getting worse.
7.【題組】7.According to Jeff Gilbert, the “advisory” classes at Hillsdale were set up so that students could .
(A)tell their teachers what they did on weekends
(B)experience a great deal of pleasure in learning
(C)maintain closer relationships with their teachers
(D)tackle the demanding biology and physics courses
8.In times of economic crisis. Americans turn to their families for support. If the Great Depression is any guide, we may see a drop in our skyhigh divorce rate. But
this won’t necessarily represent. an increase in happy marriages. In the long run, the Depression weakened American families, and the current crisis will probably do
We tend to think of the Depression as a time when families pulled together to survive huge job losses, By 1932. when nearly one-quarter of the workforce was
unemployed, the divorce rate had declined by around 25% from 1929 But this doesn’t mean people were suddenly happier with their marriages. Rather, with incomes
decreasing and insecure jobs, unhappy couples often couldn’t afford to divorce. They feared neither spouse could manage alone.
Today, given the job losses of the past year, fewer unhappy couples will risk starting separate households, Furthermore, the housing market meltdown will make it
more difficult for them to finance their separations by selling their homes.
After financial disasters family members also tend to do whatever they can to help each other and their communities, A 1940 book. The Unemployed Man and His Family,
described a family in which the husband initially reacted to losing his job “with tireless search for work.”He was always active, looking for odd jobs to do.
The problem is that such an impulse is hard to sustain Across the country, many similar families were unable to maintain the initial boost in morale(士气). For
some, the hardships of life without steady work eventually overwhelmed their attempts to keep their families together. The divorce rate rose again during the rest of
the decade as the recovery took hold.
Millions of American families may now be in the initial stage of their responses to the current crisis, working together and supporting one another through the
early months of unemployment.
Today’s economic crisis could well generate a similar number of couples whose relationships have been irreparably(无法弥补地)ruined. So it’s only when the economy
is healthy again that we’ll begin to see just how many broken families have been created.
In the initial stage, the current economic crisis is likely to __________.
(A)tear many troubled families apart
(B)contribute to enduring family ties
(C)bring about a drop in the divorce rate
(D)cause a lot of conflicts in the family
9.【題組】58.In the Great Depression many unhappy couples close to stick together because
(A)starting a new family would be hard
(B)they expected things would turn better
(C)they wanted to better protect their kids
(D)living separately would be too costly
10.【題組】59.In addition to job losses. What stands in the way of unhappy couples getting a divorce?
(A)Mounting family debts
(B)A sense of insecurity
(C)Difficulty in getting a loan
(D)Falling housing prices
11.【題組】60.What will the current economic crisis eventually do to some married couples?
(A)It will force them to pull their efforts together
(B)It will undermine their mutual understanding
(C)It will help strengthen their emotional bonds
(D)It will irreparably damage their relationship
12.【題組】61.What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
(A)The economic recovery will see a higher divorce rate
(B)Few couples can stand the test of economic hardships
(C)A stable family is the best protection against poverty.
(D)Money is the foundation of many a happy marriage
13.People are being lured (引诱)onto Facebook with the promise of a fun, free service without realizing they’re paying for it by giving up toads of personal
information. Facebook then attempts to make money by selling their data to advertisers that want to send targeted messages.
Most Facebook users don’t realize this is happening. Even if they know what the company is up to, they still have no idea what they’re paying for Face book
because people don’t really know what their personal data is worth.
The biggest problem, however, is that the company keeps changing the rules Early on you keep everything private. That was the great thing about facebook you could
create own little private network. Last year. The company changed its privacy rules so that many things you city. Your photo, your friends’ names-were set, by default
(默认)to be shared with every one on the Internet.
According to Facebook’s vice-president Elliot Schrage, the company is simply making changes to improve its service, and if people don’t share information They
have a “less satisfying experience”.
Some critics think this is more about Facebook looking to make more money. In original business model, which involved selling ads and putting then At the side of
the pages totally Who wants to took at ads when they’re online connecting with their friends?
urged the Federal Trade Commission to set guidelines for social-networking sites.“I think the senator rightly communicated that we had not been clear about what the
new products were and how people could choose to use them or not to use them,” Schrage admits.
I suspect that whatever Facebook has done so far to invade our privacy, it’s only the beginning. Which is why I’m considering deactivating(撤销)my account.
Facebook is a handy site, but I’m upset by the idea that my information is in the hands of people I don’t That’s too high a price to pay.
What do we learn about Facebook from the first paragraph?
(A)It is a website that sends messages to targeted users.
(B)It makes money by putting on advertisements.
(C)It profits by selling its users’ personal data.
(D)It provides loads of information to its users.
14.【題組】63.What does the author say about most Facebook users?
(A)They are reluctant to give up their personal information.
(B)They don’t know their personal data enriches Facebook.
(C)They don’t identify themselves when using the website.
(D)They care very little about their personal information.
15.【題組】64.Why does Facebook make changes to its rules according to Elliot Schrage?
(A)To render better service to its users.
(B)To conform to the Federal guidelines.
(C)To improve its users’ connectivity.
(D)To expand its scope of business.
16.【題組】65.Why does Senator Charles Schumer advocate?
(A)Setting guidelines for advertising on websites.
(B)Banning the sharing of users’ personal information.
(C)Formulating regulations for social-networking sites.
(D)Removing ads from all social-networking sites.
17.【題組】66.Why does the author plan to cancel his Facebook account?
(A)He is dissatisfied with its current service.
(B)He finds many of its users untrustworthy.
(C)He doesn’t want his personal data abused.
(D)He is upset by its frequent rule changes.
18.Because conflict and disagreements are part of all close relationships, couples need to learn strategies for managing conflict in a healthy and constructive way.
Some couples just 67 and deny the presence of any conflict in a relationship. 68 ,denying the existence of conflict results in couples 69 to solve their problems at
early 70 ,which can then lead to even greater problems later 71 .Not surprisingly, expressing anger and disagreement leads to lower marital (婚姻的)satisfaction at the
beginning. However, this pattern of behavior 72 increases in marital satisfaction over time. Research suggests that working 73 conflicts is an important predictor of
So, what can you do to manage conflict in your own relationships? First, try to understand the other person’s point of view 74 put yourself in his of her place.
People who are 75 to what their partner thinks and feels 76 greater relationship satisfaction. For example, researchers found that among people in dating relationships
77 marriages, those who can adopt their partner’s perspective show more positive 78 .more relationship-enhancing attributes and more constructive responses 79
Second, because conflict and disagreements are an 80 part of close relationships. People need to be able to apologize to their partner for wrongdoing and 81
forgiveness from their parents for their own acts. Apologies minimize conflict, lead to forgiveness, and serve to restore relationship closeness. In line 82 this view,
spouses who are more forgiving show higher mental 83 over time. Increasingly, apologizing can even have 84 health benefits. For example, when people reflect on hurtful
85 and grudges(怨恨)，they show negative physiological(生理的) effects, including 86 heart rate and blood pressure, compared to when they reflect on sympathetic
perspective-taking and forgiving.
(A)as long as
(B)as far as
(C)as well as
(D)as soon as