The ocean bottom – a region nearly 2.5 times greater than the total land area of the Earth – is a vast frontier that even today is largely unexplored and uncharted. Until about a century ago, the deep – ocean floor was completely inaccessible, hidden beneath waters averaging over 3,6000 meters deep. Totally without light and subjected to intense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth's surface, the deep – ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans, in some ways as forbidding and remote as the void of outer space.
Although researchers have taken samples of deep – ocean rocks and sediments for over a century, the first detailed global investigation of the ocean bottom did not actually start until 1968, with the beginning of the National Science Foundation's Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP's drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean's surface and drill in very deep waters, extracting samples of sediments and rock from the ocean floor.
The Glomar Challenger completed 96 voyages in a 15 – year research program that ended in November 1983. During this time, the vessel logged 600,000 kilometers and took almost 20,000 core samples of seabed sediments and rocks at 624 drilling sites around the world. The Glomar Challenger's core samples have allowed geologists to reconstruct what the planet looked like hundreds of millions of years ago and to calculate what it will probably look like millions of years in the future. Today, largely on the strength of evidence gathered during the Glomar Challenger's voyages, nearly all earth scientists agree on the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift that explain many of the geological processes that shape the Earth.
The cores of sediment drilled by the Glomar Challenger have also yielded information critical to understanding the world's past climates. Deep – ocean sediments provide a climatic record stretching back hundreds of millions of years, because they are largely isolated from the mechanical erosion and the intense chemical and biological activity that rapidly destroy much land – based evidence of past climates. This record has already provided insights into the patterns and causes of past climatic change – information that may be used to predict future climates. 【題組】
1. The author refers to the ocean bottom as a "frontier" in line 2 because it
(A) is not a popular area for scientific research
(B) contains a wide variety of life forms
(C) attracts courageous explorers
(D) is an unknown territory
3.【題組】3. The author mentions outer space in line 7 because
(A) the Earth's climate millions of years ago was similar to conditions in outer space
(B) it is similar to the ocean floor in being alien to the human environment
(C) rock formations in outer space are similar to those found on the ocean floor
(D) techniques used by scientists to explore outer space were similar to those used in ocean exploration
4.【題組】4. Which of the following is true of the Glomar Challenger?
(A) It is a type of submarine.
(B) It is an ongoing project.
(C) It has gone on over 100 voyages.
(D) It made its first DSDP voyage in 1968.
6.【題組】6. The Deep Sea Drilling Project was significant because it was
(A) an attempt to find new sources of oil and gas
(B) the first extensive exploration of the ocean bottom
(C) composed of geologists from all over the world
(D) funded entirely by the gas and oil industry
9.【題組】9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being a result of the Deep Sea Drilling Project?
(A) Geologists were able to determine the Earth's appearance hundreds of millions of years ago.
(B) Two geological theories became more widely accepted by scientists.
(C) Information was revealed about the Earth's past climatic changes.
(D) Geologists observed forms of marine life never before seen.
Basic to any understanding of Canada in 20 years after the Second World War is the country's impressive population growth. For every three Canadians in 1945, there were over five in 1996. In September 1966 Canada's population passed the 20 million mark. Most of this surging growth came from natural increase. The depression of the 1930's and the war had held back marriages and the catching – up process began after 1945. The baby boom continued through the decade of the 1950's, producing a population increase of nearly fifteen percent in the five years from 1951 to 1956. This rate of increase had been exceeded only once before in Canada's history, in the decade before 1911, when the prairies were being settled. Undoubtedly, the good economic conditions of the 1950's supported a growth in the population, but the expansion also derived from a trend toward earlier marriages and an increase in the average size of families. In 1957 the Canadian birth rate stood at 28 per thousand, one of the highest in the world.
After the peak year of 1957, the birth rate in Canada began to decline. It continued falling until in 1966 it stood at the lowest level in 25 years. Partly this decline reflected the low level of births during the depression and the war, but it was also caused by changes in Canadian society. Young people were staying at school longer, more women were working, young married couples were buying automobiles or houses before starting families, rising living standards were cutting down the size of families. It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.
Although the growth in Canada's population has slowed down by 1966(the increase in the first half of the 1960's was only nine percent). Another large population wave was coming over the horizon. It would be composed of the children of the children who were born during the period of the high birth rate prior to 1957.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Educational changes in Canadian society.
(B) Canada during the Second World War
(C) Population trends in postwar Canada
(D) Standards of living in Canada
18.【題組】18. The author mentions all of the following as causes of declines in population growth after 1957 EXCEPT
(A) people being better educated
(B) people getting married earlier
(C) better standards of living
(D) couples buying houses
19.【題組】19. It can be inferred from the passage that before the industrial Revolution
(A) families were larger
(B) population statistic were unreliable
(C) the population grew steadily
(D) economic conditions were bad
Are organically grown foods the best food choices? The advantages claimed for such foods over conventionally grown and marketed food products are now being debated. Advocates of organic foods – a term whose meaning varies greatly – frequently proclaim that such products are safer and more nutritious than others.
The growing interest of consumers in the safety and more nutritional quality of the typical North American diet is a welcome development. However, much of this interest has been sparked by sweeping claims that the food supply is unsafe or in adequate in meeting nutritional needs. Although most of these claims are not supported by scientific evidence, the preponderance of written material advancing such claims makes it difficult for the general public to separate fact from fiction. As a result, claims that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.
Almost daily the public is besieged by claims for "no-aging" diets, new vitamins, and other wonder foods. There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.
One thing that most organically grown food products seem to have in common is that they cost more than conventionally grown foods. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organic foods can maintain health and provide better nutritional quality than conventionally grown foods. So there is real cause for concern if consumers, particularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food and buy and buy only expensive organic foods instead.
【題組】22. The world "Advocates" in line 3 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
24.【題組】24. The "welcome development" mentioned in line 6 is an increase in
(A) interest in food safety and nutritional quality of the typical North American diet
(B) the nutritional quality of the typical North American diet
(C) the amount of healthy food grown in North America
(D) the number of consumers in North America
25.【題組】25. According to the first paragraph, which of the following is true about the term "organic foods"?
(A) It is accepted by most nutritionists.
(B) It has been used only in recent years.
(C) It has no fixed meaning.
(D) It is seldom used by consumers.
28.【題組】28. The author implies that there is cause for concern if consumers with limited incomes buy organic foods instead of conventionally grown foods because
(A) organic foods can be more expensive but are often no better than conventionally grown foods
(B) many organic foods are actually less nutritious than similar conventionally grown foods
(C) conventionally grown foods are more readily available than organic foods
(D) too many farmers will stop using conventional methods to grow food crops.
There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world, even the seasonal changes, as unpredictable, and they sought through various means, to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.
Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances, and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect - success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun - as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.
Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this view, tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
【題組】31. What does the passage many discuss?
(A) The origins of theater
(B) The role of ritual in modern dance
(C) The importance of storytelling
(D) The variety of early religious activities.
33.【題組】33. What aspect of drama does the author discuss in the first paragraph?
(A) The reason drams is often unpredictable
(B) The seasons in which dramas were performed
(C) The connection between myths and dramatic plots
(D) The importance of costumes in early drama
38.【題組】38. According to the passage, what is the main difference between ritual and drama?
(A) Ritual uses music whereas drama does not.
(B) Ritual is shorter than drama.
(C) Ritual requires fewer performers than drama.
(D) Ritual has a religious purpose and drama does not.
39.【題組】39. The passage supports which of the following statements?
(A) No one really knows how the theater began
(B) Myths are no longer represented dramatically.
(C) Storytelling is an important part of dance
(D) Dramatic activities require the use of costumes.
Staggering tasks confronted the people of the united States, North and South, when the Civil war ended. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy. Civil government also had to be put back on a peacetime basis and interference from the military had to be stopped.
The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also in the North, though less spectacularly. Industries had to adjust to peacetime conditions, factories had to be retooled for civilian needs.
Financial problems loomed large in both the North and the South. The national debt had shot up from a modest $65 million in 1861, the year the ear started to nearly $3 billion in 1865, the year the war ended. This was a colossal sum for those days but one that a prudent government could pay. At the same time, war taxes had to be reduced to less burdensome levels.
Physical devastation caused by invading armies, chiefly in the South and border states, had to be repaired. This herculean task was ultimately completed, but with discouraging slowness.
Other important questions needed answering. What would be the future of the four million black people who were freed from slavery? On what basis were the Southern states to be brought back into the Union?
What of the Southern leaders, all of whom were liable to charges of treason? One of these leaders, Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Confederacy, was the subject of an insulting popular Northern song, "Hang Jeff Davis from a Sour Apple Tree." And even children sang it. Davis was temporarily chained in his prison cell during the early days of his two-year imprisonment. But he and the other Southern leaders were finally released, partly because it was unlikely that a jury from Virginia, a Southern Confederate state, would convict them. All the leaders were finally pardoned by President Johnson in 1868 in an effort to help reconstruction efforts proceed with as little bitterness as possible.
【題組】41. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Wartime expenditures
(B) Problems facing the United States after the war
(C) Methods of repairing the damage caused by the war
(D) The results of government efforts to revive the economy
44.【題組】44. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the damage in the South is correct?
(A) It was worse than in the North.
(B) The cost was less than expected
(C) It was centered in the border states.
(D) It was remedied rather quickly.
45.【題組】45. The passage refers to all of the following as necessary steps following the Civil War EXCEPT
(A) helping soldiers readjust
(B) restructuring industry
(C) returning government to normal
(D) increasing taxes
47.【題組】47. Why does the author mention a popular song in lines 22-23?
(A) To give attitude towards the South
(B) To illustrate the Northern love of music
(C) To emphasize the cultural differences between the North and the South
(D) To compare the Northern and Southern presidents
48.【題組】48. Which of the following can be inferred from the phrase " _____it was unlikely that a jury from Virginia . a Southern Confederate state ,would convict them" (lines 25-26)?
(A) Virginians felt betrayed by Jefferson Davis
(B) A popular song insulted Virginians
(C) Virginians were loyal to their leaders
(D) All of the Virginia military leaders had been put in chains.
50.【題組】50. It can be inferred from the passage that President Johnson pardoned the Southern leaders in order to
(A) raise money for the North
(B) repair the physical damage in the South
(C) prevent Northern leaders from punishing more Southerners
(D) help the nation recover from the war