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95 年 - 95學年度學士後醫學系-普通生物學 #82950 

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1.1. The growing season would generally be shortest in which of the following biomes?
(A) tropical rain forest
(B) temperate broadleaf forest
(C) taiga
(D) temperate grassland
(E) savanna .

2.2. The type of learning that causes specially trained dogs to salivate when the)' hear bells is called
(A) habituation.
(B) imprinting.
(C) trial-and-error learning.
(D) classical conditioning.
(E) insight. .

3.3. To measure species diversity in a community, you need to know
(A) the number of species.
(B) the relative abundance of each species.
(C) the physical size of each species.
(D) both A and B
(E) A, B, and C .

4.4. Human use of prokaiyotic organisms to help detoxify a polluted wetland would be an example of
(A) keystone species introduction.
(B) ecosystem augmentation.
(C) biological control.
(D) population viability analysis.
(E) bioremediation. .

5.5. All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except
(A) guard cell — regulation of transpiration
(B) sieve-tube member ——translocation
(C) vessel element — water transport
(D) mesophyll — photosynthesis
(E) companion cell — formation of secondary xylem and phloem .

6.6. An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is
(A) lateral buds.
(B) apical dominance.
(C) intercalary meristems.
(D) absence of petioles.
(E) dosing of the stomata. .

7.7. The amount and direction of movement of water in plants can always be predicted by measuring which of the following?
(A) air pressure
(B) proton gradients
(C) dissolved solutes
(D) rainfall
(E) water potential .

8.8. Root hairs are most important to a plant because they
(A) anchor a plant in the soil.
(B) increase the surface area for absorption.
(C) contain xylem tissue.
(D) store starches.
(E) provide a habitat for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. .

9.9. What is the relationship between pollination and fertilization in flowering plants?
(A) Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species.
(B) If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary.
(C) Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near each other.
(D) Pollination brings gametophytes together so that fertilization can occur.
(E) Fertilization precedes pollination. .

10.10. The least reliable indicator of an animal's metabolic rate would be the amount of
(A) ATP produced within its cells.
(B) water it drinks. |
(C) heat it generates.
(D) oxygen it inspires. I
(E) carbon dioxide it expires. .

11.11. Which of the following is not part of an older tree's bark? |
(A) cork
(B) cork cambium I
(C) lenticels
(D) secondary xylem 1
(E) secondary phloem | . .

12.12. What do hearing, touch, and smell have in common?
(A) The transducers are all proprioceptors. ^
(B) The sensory information from all three is sent to the thalamus.
(C) The sensoiy receptors are all hair cells. i
(D) Sensory energy is transduced to form a receptor potential. 髮
(E) Only A and B are correct. [ .

13.13. To sequence the following double strand of DNA, which primer can be used? 
5'AGGCAGTTACCG------------------//--------------------------------GGCTTAAAGTCG 3‘
3‘TCCGTCAATGGC-------------------//------------------         ------CCGAATTTCAGC5‘
 
(A) 5‘TCCGTCAATGGC3‘
(B) 5‘CCGAATTTCAGC3‘
(C)5‘AGGCAGTTACCG3‘
(D) 5‘GGCTTAAAGTCG3‘
(E) None of them.
.

14.14. Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis?  .
(A) The reaction of two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide with the release of water
(B) The synthesis of two amino acids to form a dipeptide with the utilization of water 
(C) The reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids with the release of water s
(D) The reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids with the utilization of water
(E) The synthesis of a nucleotide from a phosphate, a ribose sugar, and a nitrogen base with the production of a molecule of water .

15.15. Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?
(A) peroxisomes
(B) desmosomes
(C) gap junctions
(D) glycocalyx
(E) tight junctions .

16.16. What are the products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle? [
(A) oxygen and carbon dioxide
(B) ATP and NADPH 
(C) electrons and photons
(D) water and carbon
(E) carbon dioxide and RuBP .

17.17. "Density-dependent inhibition" is explained by which of the following? 
(A) As cells become more numerous, the amount of required growth factors and nutrients per cell becomes insufficient to ; allow for cell growth.
(B) As cells become more numerous, they begin to squeeze against each other, restricting their size and ability to produce control factors.
(C) As cells become more numerous, the level of waste products increases, eventually slowing down metabolism.
(D) As cells become more numerous, more and more of them enter the S phase of the cell cycle.
(E) As cells become more numerous, they begin to squeeze against each other, restricting their size and ability to produce control factors. .

18.18. A new DNA strand only elongates in the 5' to 3' direction because
(A) Okazaki fragments prevent elongation in the 3(to 5' direction.
(B) DNA polymerase begins adding nucleotides at the 5' end.
(C) replication must progress toward the replication fork.
(D) the polarity of the DNA molecule prevents addition of nucleotides at the 3' end.
(E) DNA polymerase adds nucleotides only to the free 3' end. .

19.19. When chemicals are used to control unwanted organisms, then the wisest application strategy, in light of natural selection and assuming that chemicals generally have negative effects on the environment, is to apply
(A) a small dose of a single chemical.
(B) a large dose of a single chemical.
(C) moderate doses of several different chemicals.
(D) large doses of several different chemicals.
(E) a moderate dose of a single chemical. .

20.20. The outcome of the conflict between bacteria and bacteriophage at any point in time results from
(A) evolutionary imbalance.
(B) heterozygote advantage.
(C) frequency-dependent selection.
(D) neutral variation.
(E) genetic variation being preserved by diploidy. .

21.21. HIV is ultimately a fatal disease. Which choice could be used as an analogy to describe how HTV affects the body?
(A) Snipping the wires coming from a car battery so that no electricity flows to the car components.
(B) Bypassing a light switch so that electricity is constantly flowing to a light.
(C) An elevator stopping at the floor of which the button has been pushed.
(D) Rebooting a computer after getting a program error message.
(E) Changing the color of your house to match the color of your car. .

22.22. Which of the following substances is incorrectly matched with its producer?
(A) atrial natriuretic factor ---- heart
(B) angiotensinogen — liver
(C) renin—juxtaglomerular apparatus
(D) aldosterone — kidney
(E) ADH — hypothalamus .

23.23. Aspirin and ibuprofen affect the production of
(A) prostaglandins.
(B) hormones.
(C) neurotransmitters.
(D) histamine.
(E) interleukins. .

24.24. In humans, identical twins are possible because
(A) of interactions between extraembiyonic cells and the zygote nucleus.
(B) of the heterozygeneous distribution of cytoplasmic determinants in unfertilized eggs.
(C) the gray crescent divides the dorsal-ventral axis into new cells.
(D) of convergent extension.
(E) the blastomeres are genetically the same. .

25.25. Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity?
(A) salivaiy
(B) pancreas
(C) adrenal
(D) pituitary
(E) parathyroid .

26.26. The secretion of hormone A causes an increase in activity X in an organism. If this mechanism works by positive feedback, which of the following statements represents that fact ?
(A) An increase in X produces an increase in A.
(B) An increase in A produces an increase in X.
(C) An increase in X produces a decrease in A.
(D) A decrease in A produces an increase in X.
(E) Both A and B are correct. .

27.27. Which of the following are shared by skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle?
(A) A bands and I bands
(B) transverse tubules
(C) thick and thin filaments
(D) motor units
(E) gap junctions .

28.28. Which of the following molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
(A) steroid hormone
(B) small peptides
(C) glucose
(D) large peptides
(E) water .

29.29. Why do pseudogenes not express in genome? I
(A) They code for RNA end products, rather than proteins. 
(B) They contain uracil. 
(C) They do not have promoter and enhancer sites. |
(D) Their reading frames are wrong. J
(E) They locate in different chrosome. I .

30.30. What would be the consequence if gastrulation did not occur? |
(A) Cleavage would not occur in the zygote.
(B) Embryonic germ layers would not form. I
(C) Fertilization would be blocked.
(D) The blastula would not be formed. 是
(E) The blastopore would form above the gray crescent in the animal pole. j: .

31.重新載圖

5e496a3e61267.jpg


【題組】 31. Which of the following might be affected by Compound 1 ?
(A) I, II, or III.
(B) I or II.
(C) 11 or HI.
(D) I, II or V.
(E) Dior IV I .


32.【題組】32. Which of the following might be affected by Compound 2? ^
(A) I,II, or III.
(B) I or II.
(C) III or IV.
(D) I, II or V.
(E) II or III. .

33.重新載圖

33. Comparison of the above four constructs (I, II, III, IV) for the transcription of mRNA of gene A, which of the following ; is in a correct order for the expression of gene A (From high to low)? 5e496a9609bd0.jpg 
(A) i,II, III, rv
(B) IV,in, II,i
(C) II, i, ffl, IV
(D)mji, i, IV
(E) i, n,IV,m 

.


34.34. When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed Fi generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. He concluded that the involved gene was on the X chromosome. Why he could make this conclusion?
(A) Before this experiment, he already knew the genes are located at chromosome.
(B) Before this experiment, he knew that the sex was determined by X and Y chromosome.
(C) He knew the phenotype of eyes was sex-Iinkage.
(D) His conclusion makes non-sense at all.
(E) Before this experiment, he knew that Y-chromosome canys very few genes. .

35.35. Which of the following ideas is not consistent with our understanding of animal structure?
(A) The environment imposes similar problems on all animals.
(B) The evolution of structure in an animal is influenced by its environment.
(C) All but the simplest animals demonstrate the same hierarchical levels of organization.
(D) Different animals contain fundamentally different categories of tissues.
(E) Short-term adjustments to environmental changes are mediated by physiological organ systems .

36.36. Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in either a reptile or a mammal?
(A) left ventricle aorta — lungs — systemic circulation.
(B) right ventricle — pulmonary vein —^ pulmocutaneous circulation.
(C) pulmonary vein — left atrium —^ ventricle pulmonary circuit.
(D) vena cava —• right atrium —^ ventricle —> pulmonary circuit.
(E) right atrium — pulmonary artery — left atrium — ventricle. .

37.

37. The following events occur when a mammalian immune system first encounters a pathogen. Place them in correct sequence and then choose the answer that indicates that sequence. I: Pathogen is destroyed. XL: Lymphocytes secrete antibodies. IE: Antigenic determinants from pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes. IV: Lymphocytes specific to antigenic determinants from pathogen become numerous. V: Only memory cells remain.
(A) Ⅰ ,Ⅲ, Ⅱ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ
(B) Ⅲ, Ⅱ,Ⅰ, Ⅴ, Ⅳ
(C) Ⅱ,Ⅰ, Ⅳ,Ⅲ,Ⅴ
(D) Ⅳ, Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅰ,Ⅴ
(E) Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅱ,Ⅰ, Ⅴ

.

38.38. Fossil evidence indicates that horses have gradually increased in size over geologic time.
(A) random selection
(B) directional selection
(C) stabilizing selection
(D) disruptive selection
(E) sexual selection .

39.39. Aldosterone synthesis and release is controlled by
(A) hypotnalamus-pituitary-axis.
(B) the renin-angioiensin system.
(C) glucose concentration in the blood.
(D) ion concentration in the blood.
(E) autoregulation. .

40.40. Why would a gonad cell and a prostate cell respond differently to the same steroid hormone, testosterone?
(A) They have different receptor proteins within the cell.
(B) They have different acceptor proteins on the chromatin.
(C) Steroid hormones usually transmit signals that are antagonistic.
(D) The hormone-receptor complex is transcribed and processed differently in the two kinds of cells.
(E) The targets of the hormone-receptor complex are different in the two kinds of cells. .

41.41. Which of the following statements is correct about biogeochemical cycling?
(A) The carbon cycle has maintained a constant atmospheric concentration of C02 for the past million years.
(B) The phosphorus cycle is a sedimentary cycle that involves the weathering of rocks.
(C) The nitrogen cycle involves movement of nitrogen veiy little of which is chemically altered by either the biotic or abiotic components of the ecosystem.
(D) The phosphorus cycle involves the rapid recycling of atmospheric phosphorus.
(E) The carbon cycle is a localized cycle that primarily reflects the burning of fossil fuels. .

42.42. After an action potential, the resting potential is restored by
(A) the opening of sodium activation gates. |
(B) the opening of voltage-sensitive potassium channels and the closing of sodium activation gates.
(C) an increase in the membrane's permeability to potassium and chloride ions. 
(D) the delay in the action of the sodium-potassium pump.
(E) the refractory period in which the membrane is hyperpolarized. .

43.43. Given the steps shown below, which of the following is the correct sequence for transmission at a chemical synapse? 1. Neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane. 2. Ca2+ions rush into neuron's cytoplasm. 3. Action potential depolarizes the synaptic terminal membrane. 4. Ligand-gated ion channels open. 5.∠ Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
(A) 1,2,3,4,5
(B) 2,3,5,4,l
(C) 3,2,5,1,4
(D) 4,3,1,2,5
(E) 5,1,2,4,3 .

44.44. The signal-transduction pathway in animals that use epinephrine
(A) is a classic example of synaptic signaling.
(B) involves activation of glycogen breakdown in liver and skeletal muscle cells.
(C) is a classic example of paracrine signaling.
(D) only B and C are correct.
(E) None of these describes the epinephrine system. . .

45.45. During the menstrual cycle, what is the main source of progesterone in females?
(A) growing follicle
(B) mature follicle
(C) corpus luteum
(D)uterus
(E) placenta .

46.46. Which of the following statements about succession is correct?
(A) Secondary succession can occur where a disturbance has left soil intact. 
(B) Primary succession occurs in areas where soil remains after a disturbance.
(C) Secondary succession occurs where no soil exists.
(D) Through successional dynamics,all communities will eventually reach a status of equilibrium. 
(E) Some cases of succession involve facilitation, a phenomenon in which local species inhibit the growth of newcomers. .

47.47. In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R = purple and r = white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 64 purple flowers | and 36 white flowers. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what proportion of the population is probably heterozygous for this trait? 
(A)48
(B) 0.60
(C) 0.24
(D)0.16
(E) 0.80 .

48.48. As a biologist, it is your job to look for plants that have evolved structures with a selective advantage in dry,hot conditions. Which of the following adaptations would be least likely to meet your objective?
(A) CAM plants that grow rapidly
(B) large, fleshy stems with the ability to carry out photosynthesis
(C) a thick cuticle on fleshy leaves
(D) small, thick leaves with stomata on the lower surface
(E) plants that do not produce abscisic acid and have a thick, short root .

49.49. Which of the following statements about energy flow is incorrect? 
(A) Only net primary productivity is available to consumers.
(B) Only about one-thousandth of the chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis reaches a tertiary-level consumer.
(C) Secondary productivity declines with each trophic level.
(D) About 90% of the energy at one trophic level does not appear at the next.
(E) Eating meat is probably the most economical way of acquiring the energy of photosynthetic productivity..

50.50. In excess, cortisol has aldosterone-like effects in the kidney causing salt and water retention. This is because the capacity of 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme that converts active cortisol to inactive cortisone in the kidney tubule is destroyed. This may be a factor in the hypertension seen in patients with Cushing's syndrome. What is the mechanism regarding this outcome?
(A) Cortisol is then available to interact with the cortisol receptor, which exist in the kidney.
(B) Cortisol is then available to interact with the aldosterone receptor for which it has equal affinity.
(C) Cortisol is then available to interact with the androgen receptor for which it has equal affinity.
(D) Cortisol is then available to interact with the progestin receptor,which exist in the kidney.
(E) none of them. .

51.51. When an organism dies, its muscles remain in a contracted state termed "rigor mortis" for a brief period of time. Which of the following most directly contributes to this phenomenon? There is no
(A) glycogen remaining in the muscles.
(B) ATP to move cross-bridges.
(C) ATP to break bonds between the thick and thin filaments.
(D) oxygen supplied to muscle.
(E) calcium to bind to troponin. .

52.52. What kind of data should probably have the greatest impact on animal taxonomy in the coming decades?
(A) comparative morphology of living species
(B) fossil evidence
(C) the number and size of chromosomes within nuclei
(D) similarities in metabolic pathways
(E) nucleotide sequences of homologous genes .

53.53. Which is not characteristic of all mammals?
(A) having glands to produce nourishing milk for offspring
(B) giving birth to live young (viviparous)
(C) a four-chambered heart that prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
(D) having a diaphragm to assist in ventilating the lungs
(E) having hair during at least some period of life .

54.54. Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
(A) an agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell
(B) an agent that reacts with NADH and oxidizes it to NAD+
(C) an agent that inhibits the formation of acetyl coenzyme A
(D) an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
(E) an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it .

55.55. A major function of the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, membrane must have all of the following features except
(A) the electron transport chain of proteins.
(B) proteins to accept electrons from NADH.
(C) high permeability to protons. .
(D) integral, transverse ATP synthase.
(E) proton pumps embedded in the membrane. .

56.56. Which of the following is a good example of sensory adaptation?
(A) hair cells in the utricle and saccule responding to a change in orientation when you bend your, neck forward after you have been reading a book
(B) hair cells in the organ of Corti not responding to high-pitched sounds after you have worked on the same construction job for 30 years
(C) immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin feels itchy. However, the itching stops after a few minutes and you are unaware that you are wearing a shirt
(D) cones in the human eye failing to respond to light in the infrared range
(E) rods in the human eye responding to mechanical stimulation from a blow to the back of the head so that a flash of light is perceived .

57.57. An animal deficient in adenylyl cyclase
(A) would not respond properly to epinephrine.
(B) could not convert ATP to cAMP. 
(C) would not be able to transmit nerve impulses via a synapse.
(D) both A and B are correct. 
(E) would be unable to cany out all of the above activities. .

58.58. Which of the following events occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
(A) DNA replication
(B) the homologous chromosome pairs separate because linked genes haven't been introduced
(C) segregation of alleles of unlinked genes
(D) reduction in chromosome number
(E) synapsis and crossing over .

59.59. Proto-oncogenes can be converted to oncogenes by various genetic changes. Which of these mechanisms does not contribute to an abnormal cell cycle?
(A) A gene is transposed to a more active promoter.
(B) Chromosomes break and fragments are translocated from one chromosome to another.
(C) Point mutations occur that result in a protein more resistant to degradation.
(D) Extra copies of the gene are made, thereby enhancing expression.
(E) DNA methylation takes place. .

60.60. Given the function of the bicoid gene product, if the gene were cloned and large amounts of the product were injected into eggs, which of the following would be true?
(A) The embryos would grow extra wings and legs.
(B) The embryos would die and probably show no anterior development.
(C) Anterior structures would form in the area of injection.
(D) The embiyos would develop normally. |
(E) The embiyos would grow much larger. .

61.61. According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means I that .
(A) The species is now extinct.
(B) The species will consequently have a relatively short existence, compared to other species.
(C) Speciation occurred over many thousands of years.
(D) Speciation occurred in one generation.
(E) Speciation occurred instantaneously. .

62.62. Which of the following correctly pairs a protist with one of its characteristics?
(A) Apicomplexa ---- all parasitic .
(B) Actinopoda —- calcium carbonate shell
(C) Foraminifera — abundant in soils
(D) Rhizopoda — flagellated stages
(E) Kinetoplastids — slender pseudopodia g .

63.63. If the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase significantly, it would be I expected that
(A) the amount of carbon dioxide entering the lungs from the blood would increase.
(B) the amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would increase.
(C) the pressure would cause the capillary beds to burst.
(D) the amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease.
(E) you could not make a prediction based on this information. .

64.64. The Bohr effect on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in I
(A) the partia] pressure of oxygen.
(B) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. 
(C) hemoglobin concentration.
(D) temperature. 
(E)pH. .

65.65. Which of the following is not the steroid hormone
(A) androgen
(B) testosterone
(C) estrogen
(D) leuteinizing hormone 
(E) glucocorticoid .

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95 年 - 95學年度學士後醫學系-普通生物學 #82950-阿摩線上測驗

95 年 - 95學年度學士後醫學系-普通生物學#82950