Joyce Carol Oates published her first collection of short stories. By The Gate, in 1963, two years after she had received her master's degree from the University of Wisconsin and become an instructor of English at the University of Detroit. Her productivity since then has been prodigious, accumulating in less than two decades to nearly thirty titles, including novels, collections of short stories and verse, plays, and literary criticism. In the meantime, she has continued to teach, moving in 1967 from the University of Detroit to the University of Windsor, in Ontario, and, in 1978, to Princeton University. Reviewers have admired her enormous energy, but find a productivity of such magnitude difficult to assess.
In a period characterized by the abandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth, Donald Barthelme, and Thomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedly old-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality of her fiction. Hers is a world of violence, insanity, fractured love, and hopeless loneliness. Although some of it appears to come from her own direct observations, her dreams, and her fears, much more is clearly from the experiences of others. Her first novel, With Shuddering Fall(1964), dealt with stock car racing, though she had never seen a race. IN Them(1969) she focused on Detroit from the Depression through the notes of 1967, drawing much of her material from the deep impression made on her by the problems of one of her students. Whatever the source and however shocking the events or the motivations, however, her fictive world remains strikingly akin to that real one reflected in the daily newspapers, the television news and talk shows, and the popular magazines of our day. 【題組】
1. What is the main purpose of the passage?
(A) To review Oates's By the North Gate
(B) To compare some modern writers
(C) To describe Oates's childhood
(D) To outline Oates's career
2.【題組】2. Which of the following does the passage indicate about Joyce Carol Qate's first publication?
(A) It was part of her master's thesis.
(B) It was a volume of short fiction.
(C) It was not successful.
(D) It was about an English instructor in Detroit.
3.【題組】3. Which of the following does the passage suggest about Joyce Carol Oates in terms of her writing career?
(A) She has experienced long nonproductive periods in her writing.
(B) Her style is imitative of other contemporary authors
(C) She has produced a surprising amount of fictions in a relative short time.
(D) Most of her work is based on personal experience.
6.【題組】6. Why does the author mention Oates's book Them?
(A) It is a typical novel of the 1960's
(B) It is her best piece of nonfiction.
(C) It is a fictional work based on the experiences of another person.
(D) It is an autobiography.
7.【題組】7. Which of the following would Joyce Carol Oates be most likely to write?
(A) A story with an unhappy ending
(B) A romancer novel set in the nineteenth century
(C) A science fiction novel
(D) A dialogue for a talk show
Certainly no creature in the sea is odder than the common sea cucumber. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?
For some fifty million years, despite all its eccentricities, the sea cucumber has subsisted on its diet of mud. It is adaptable enough to live attached to rocks by its tube feet, under rocks in shallow water, or on the surface of mud flats. Common in cool water on both Atlantic and Pacific shores, it has the ability to suck up mud or sand and digest whatever nutrients are present.
Sea cucumbers come in a variety of colors, ranging from black to reddish - brown to sand - color and nearly white. One form even has vivid purple tentacles. Usually the creatures are cucumber - shaped - hence their name - and because they are typically rock inhabitants, this shape, combined with flexibility, enables them to squeeze into crevices where they are safe from predators and ocean currents.
Although they have voracious appetites, eating day and night, sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate - feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods, so that the marine organisms that provide their food have a chance to multiply. If it were not for this faculty, they would devour all the food available in s short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.
But the most spectacular thing about the sea cucumber is the way it defends itself. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into the water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched; it will do the same if surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.
【題組】8. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The reason for the sea cucumber's name
(B) What makes the sea cucumber unusual
(C) How to identify the sea cucumber
(D) Places where the sea cucumber can be found
10.【題組】10. According to the Passage, why is the shape of sea cucumbers important?
(A) It helps them to digest their food
(B) It helps them to protect themselves from danger.
(C) It makes it easier for them to move through the mud.
(D) It makes them attractive to fish.
11.【題組】11. The words "this faculty" in line20 refer to the sea cucumber's ability to
(A) squeeze into crevices
(B) devour all available food in a short time
(C) suck up mud or sand
(D) live at a low metabolic rate
12.【題組】12. The fourth paragraph of the passage Primarily discusses
(A) the reproduction of sea cucumbers
(B) the food sources of sea cucumbers
(C) the eating habits of sea cucumbers
(D) threats to sea cucumbers' existence
14.【題組】14. Of all the characteristics of the sea cucumber, which of the following seems to fascinate the author most?
(A) What it does when threatened.
(B) Where it lives
(C) How it hides from predators
(D) What it eats.
16.【題組】16. What can be inferred about the defense mechanisms of the sea cucumber?
(A) They are very sensitive to surrounding stimuli.
(B) They are almost useless.
(C) They require group cooperation.
(D) They are similar to those of most sea creatures.
18.【題組】18. Which of the following is an example of behavior comparable with the sea cucumber living at a low metabolic rate?
(A) An octopus defending itself with its tentacles
(B) A bear hibernating in the winter
(C) A pig eating constantly
(D) A parasite living on its host's blood.
A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. Order is maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family, and interpersonal relationships are strong. Tradition is paramount, and change comes infrequently and slowly. There is relatively little division of labor into specialized duties. Rather, each person is expected to perform a great variety of tasks, though duties many differ between the sexes. Most goods are handmade, and a subsistence economy prevails. Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures, as are social classes. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern-equivalent in Anglo-America is the Amish, a German American farming sect that largely renounces the products and labor saving device of the industrial age. In Amish areas, horse - drawn buggies still serve as a local transportation device, and the faithful are not permitted to own automobiles. The Amish's central religious concept of Demut, "humility", clearly reflects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures, and there is a corresponding strength of Amish group identity. Rarely do the Amish marry outside their sect. The religion, a variety of the Mennonite faith, provides the principal mechanism for maintaining -order.
By contrast, a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group, often highly individualistic and constantly changing. Relationships tend to be impersonal, and a pronounced division of labor exists, leading to the establishment of many specialized professions. Secular institutions of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a money-based economy prevails. Because of these contrasts, "popular" may be viewed as clearly different from "folk". The popular is replacing the folk in industrialized countries and in many developing nations, Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use, or lends more prestige to the owner.
【題組】19. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Two decades in modern society.
(B) The influence of industrial technology
(C) The characteristics of "folk" and "popular" societies.
(D) The specialization of labor in Canada and United States
21.【題組】21. Which of the following is typical of folk cultures?
(A) There is a money- based economy.
(B) Social change occurs slowly.
(C) Contact with other cultures is encouraged
(D) Each person develops one specialized skill.
22.【題組】22. What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?
(A) They value folk cultures
(B) They have no social classes.
(C) They have popular cultures.
(D) They do not value individualism.
25.【題組】25. Which of the following statements about Amish beliefs does the passage support?
(A) A variety of religious practices is tolerated.
(B) Individualism and competition are important.
(C) Pre-modern technology is preferred.
(D) People are defined according to their class.
Many of the most damaging and life-threatening types of weather - torrential rains, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes - begin quickly, strike suddenly, and dissipate rapidly, devastating small regions while leaving neighboring areas untouched. One such event, a tornado, stuck the northeastern section of Edmonton, Alberta, in July 1987. Total damages from the tornado exceeded $250 million, the highest ever for any Canadian storm. Conventional computer models of the atmosphere have limited value in predicting short - lived local storms like the Edmonton tornado, because the available weather data are generally not detailed enough to allow computers to discern the subtle atmospheric changes that precede these storms. In most nations, for example, weather -balloon observations are taken just once every twelve hours at locations typically separated by hundreds of miles. With such limited data, conventional forecasting models do a much better job predicting general weather conditions over large regions than they do forecasting specific local events.
Until recently, the observation - intensive approach needed for accurate, very short - range forecasts, or "Nowcasts," was not feasible. The cost of equipping and operating many thousands of conventional weather stations was prohibitively high, and the difficulties involved in rapidly collecting and processing the raw weather data from such a network were insurmountable. Fortunately, scientific and technological advances have overcome most of these problems. Radar systems, automated weather instruments, and satellites are all capable of making detailed, nearly continuous observation over large regions at a relatively low cost. Communications satellites can transmit data around the world cheaply and instantaneously, and modern computers can quickly compile and analyzing this large volume of weather information. Meteorologists and computer scientists now work together to design computer programs and video equipment capable of transforming raw weather data into words, symbols, and vivid graphic displays that forecasters can interpret easily and quickly. As meteorologists have begun using these new technologies in weather forecasting offices, Nowcasting is becoming a reality.
【題組】30. What does he passage mainly discuss? (A) Computers and weather
(B) Dangerous storms
(C) Weather forecasting
31.【題組】31. Why does the author mention the tornado in Edmonton, Canada?
(A) To indicate that tornadoes are common in the summer
(B) To give an example of a damaging storm
(C) To explain different types of weather
(D) To show that tornadoes occur frequently in Canada
33.【題組】33. Why does the author state in line 10 that observations are taken "just once every twelve hours?"
(A) To indicate that the observations are timely
(B) To show why the observations are on limited value
(C) To compare data from balloons and computers
(D) To give an example of international cooperation
39.【題組】39. With which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree?
(A) Communications satellites can predict severe weather.
(B) Meteorologists should standardize computer programs.
(C) The observation - intensive approach is no longer useful.
(D) Weather predictions are becoming more accurate.
40.【題組】40. Which of the following would best illustrate Nowcasting?
(A) A five-day forecast
(B) A warning about a severe thunderstorm on the radio
(C) The average rainfall for each month
(D) A list of temperatures in major cities
People in the United States in the nineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change in he nation's economy would bring social chaos. In the years following 1820, after several decades of relative stability, the economy entered a period of sustained and extremely rapid growth that continued to the end of the nineteenth century. Accompanying that growth that was a structural change that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift in the nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and other nonagricultural pursuits.
Although the birth rate continued to decline from its high level of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. The population roughly doubled every generation during the rest of the nineteenth centuries. As the population grew, its makeup also changed. Massive waves of immigration brought new ethnic groups into the country. Geographic and social mobility - downward as well as upward - touched almost everyone. Local studies indicate that nearly three - quarters of the population - in the North and South, in the emerging cities of the Northeast, and in the restless rural counties of the West - changed their residence each decade. As a consequence, historian David Donald has written, "Social atomization affected every segment of society," and it seemed to many people that "all the recognized values of orderly civilization were gradually being eroded." Rapid industrialization and increased geographic mobility in the nineteenth century had special implications for women because these tended to magnify social distinctions. As the roles men and women played in society became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home. In the context of extreme competitiveness and dizzying social change, the household lost many of its earlier functions and the home came to serve as a haven of tranquillity and order. As the size of families decreased, the roles of husband and wife became more clearly differentiated than ever before. In the middle class especially, men participated in the productive economy while women ruled the home and served as the custodians of civility and culture. The intimacy of marriage that was common in earlier periods was rent, and a gulf that at times seemed unbridgeable was created between husbands and wives.
【題組】41.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The economic development of the United States in the eighteenth century
(B) Ways in which economic development led to social changes in the United States
(C) Population growth in the western United States
(D) The increasing availability of industrial jobs for women in the United States
46.【題組】46. According to the passage, as the nineteenth century progressed, the people of the United States
(A) emigrated to other countries
(B) often settled in the West
(C) tended to change the place in which they lived
(D) had a higher rate of birth than ever before
47.【題組】47.Which of the following best describes the society about which David Donald wrote?
(A) A highly conservative society that was resistant to new ideas
(B) A society that was undergoing fundamental change
(C) A society that had been gradually changing since the early 1700's
(D) A nomadic society that was starting permanent settlements
49.【題組】49.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of the social changes occurring in the United States after 1820?
(A) Increased social mobility
(B) Increased immigration
(C) Significant movement of population
(D) Strong emphasis on traditional social values