97年1月TOFEL閱讀 (Page 161-163)#20921
Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods.
In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators, the cotton presses, the warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation's farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them. In manufacturing, the transformation was marked by the emergence of a "new factory system" in which plants became larger, more complex, and more systematically organized and managed. And in distribution, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the jobber, the wholesaler, and the mass retailer. These changes radically altered the nature of work during the half century between 1870 and 1920.
To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the sweatshops in city tenements, where groups of men and women in household settings manufactured clothing or cigars on a piecework basis. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single buildings. But as the number of wage earners in manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did the size of the average plant. (The Baldwin Works had 600 employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By 1920, at least in the northeastern United States where most of the nation's manufacturing wage earners were concentrated, three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than 100 employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than 1,000 employees.
1. The word "domains" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
2.【題組】2. What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?
(A) New technological developments had little effect on farmers.
(B) The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.
(C) Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.
(D) Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.
3.【題組】3. The word "fundamental" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
4.【題組】4. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the "new factory system?"
(A) A change in the organization of factories.
(B) A growth in the complexity of factories.
(C) An increase in the size of factories.
(D) An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.
5.【題組】5. Which of the following statements about manufacturing before 1870 can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Most manufacturing activity was highly organized.
(B) Most manufacturing occurred in relatively small plants.
(C) The most commonly manufactured goods were cotton presses.
(D) Manufacturing and agriculture each made up about half of the nation's economy.
6.【題組】6. The word "skilled" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
7.【題組】7. The word "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to
(B) led to
(C) worked in
8.【題組】8. The author mentions the Baldwin Locomotive Works in lines 23-24 because it was
(A) a well-known metal-works
(B) the first plant of its kind in Philadelphia
(C) typical of the large factories that were becoming more common
(D) typical of factories that consisted of a single building
Stars may be spheres, but not every celestial object is spherical. Objects in the universe show a variety of shapes: round planets (some with rings), tailed comets, wispy cosmic gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this list describes the largest single entities in the universe. These are the double radio sources, galaxies with huge clouds of radio emission that dwarf the visible galaxies, sometimes by a factor of a hundred or more. Stretching over distances greater than a million light-years, these radio-emitting regions resemble twin turbulent gas clouds, typically forming dumbbell-like shapes with the visible galaxy (when it is visible) in the center.
These double radio sources present astronomers with a puzzle. Their radio emission arises from the synchrotron process, in which electrons accelerated to nearly the speed of light move through magnetic fields. However, in view of the rate at which the radio sources emit energy, they should disappear in a few million years as their electrons slow down and cease producing radiation. Somehow new electrons must be continually accelerated to nearly the speed of light, otherwise, by now almost none of the double radio sources would be observed.
With the advent of high-resolution radio interferometers during the late 1970's, part of the answer became clear: the electrons are produced in jets that are shot out in opposite directions from the center of galaxy. Remarkably narrow and highly directional, the jets move outward at speeds close to the speed of light. When the jets strike the highly rarefied gas that permcales intergalactic space, the fast-moving electrons lose their highly directional motion and form vast clouds of radio-emitting gas.
Cosmic jets have ranked among the hottest topics of astronomical research in recent years as astronomers strive to understand where they come from. Why should a galaxy eject matter at such tremendous speeds in two narrow jets? And why are such jets not seen in the Milky Way?
【題組】9. The word "celestial" in line 1 could best be replaced by
10.【題組】10. The word "entities" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
11.【題組】11. In the first paragraph, the author describes objects in the universe in terms of their
12.【題組】12. Which of the following is the best representation of the clouds of radio emission described in the first paragraph?
13.【題組】13. According to the passage, scientists do not fully understand why double radio sources
(A) have not eventually disappeared
(B) cannot be observed with a telescope
(C) are beginning to slow down
(D) are not as big as some planets and stars
14.【題組】14. The word "their" in line 22 refers to
15.【題組】15. According to the passage, what happens when electrons and gas collide in space?
(A) The gas becomes more condensed
(B) The gas becomes less radiated
(C) The electrons disperse
(D) The electrons become negatively charged
16.【題組】16. The author suggests that astronomers consider the study of cosmic jets to be
(A) an obsolete scientific field
(B) an unprofitable venture
(C) an intriguing challenge
(D) a subjective debate
17.【題組】17. In what lines does the passage compare the size of double radio sources with that of other galaxies?
(A) Lines 4-6
(B) Lines 12-14
(C) Lines 19-20
(D) Lines 23-24
18.【題組】18. Where in the passage does the author mention a technology that aided in the understanding of double radio sources?
(A) Line 2
(B) Line 7
(C) Line 17
(D) Line 21
19.【題組】19. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses
(A) specific double radio sources
(B) an explanation of the synchrotron process
(C) possible reasons for the presence of cosmic jets
(D) the discovery of the first double radio sources.
The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one, and in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans and craftspeople. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds. Some skilled craftspeople made intricately carved wooden ornamentations for furniture or architectural decorations, while others caved wooden shop signs and ships' figureheads. Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally think of as "sculptors" in today's use of the word.
On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt. Wilton also made a lead equestrian image of King George III that was created in New York in 1770 and torn down by zealous patriots six years later. A few marble memorials with carved busts, urns, or other decorations were produced in England and brought to the colonies to be set in the walls of churches-as in King's Chapel in Boston. But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists who knew both the artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and the various technical procedures of modeling, casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms, was not known among Americans in 1776. Indeed, for many years thereafter, the United States had two groups from which to choose - either the local craftspeople or the imported talent of European sculptors.
The eighteenth century was not one in which powered sculptural conceptions were developed. Add to this the timidity with which unschooled artisans - originally trained as stonemasons, carpenters, or cabinetmakers - attacked the medium from which they sculpture made in the United States in the late eighteenth century.
【題組】20. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) There was great demand for the work of eighteenth-century artisans.
(B) Skilled sculptors did not exist in the United States in the 1770's.
(C) Many foreign sculptors worked in the United States after 1776.
(D) American sculptors were hampered by a lack of tools and materials.
21.【題組】21. The word "motifs" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
22.【題組】22. The work of which of the following could be seen in burial grounds?
(A) European sculptors
(C) Stone carves
23.【題組】23. The word "other" in line 6 refers to
(D) shop signs
24.【題組】24. The word "distinct" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
25.【題組】25. The word "rare" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
26.【題組】26. Why does the author mention Joseph Wilton in line 13?
(A) He was an English sculptor who did work in the United States.
(B) He was well known for his wood carvings
(C) He produced sculpture for churches.
(D) He settled in the United States in 1776.
27.【題組】27. What can be inferred about the importation of marble memorials from England?
(A) Such sculpture was less expensive to produce locally than to import
(B) Such sculpture was not available in the United States.
(C) Such sculpture was as prestigious as those made locally.
(D) The materials found abroad were superior.
28.【題組】28. How did the work of American carvers in 1776 differ from that of contemporary sculptors?
(A) It was less time-consuming
(B) It was more dangerous.
(C) It was more expensive.
(D) It was less refined.
Large animals that inhabit the desert have evolved a number of adaptations for reducing the effects of extreme heat. One adaptation is to be light in color, and to reflect rather than absorb the Sun's rays. Desert mammals also depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant's gazelles. The overheated body then cools down during the cold desert night, and indeed the temperature may fall unusually low by dawn, as low as 34 degrees Celsius in the camel. This is an advantage since the heat of the first few hours of daylight is absorbed in warming up the body, and an excessive buildup of heat does not begin until well into the day.
Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the loss of body water to a point that would be fatal for non-adapted animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent of its body weight as water without harm to itself, whereas human beings die after losing only 12 to 13 percent of their body weight. An equally important adaptation is the ability to replenish this water loss at one drink. Desert animals can drink prodigious volumes in a short time, and camels have been known to imbibe over 100 liters in a few minutes. A very dehydrated person, on the other hand, cannot drink enough water to rehydrate at one session, bec ause the human stomach is not sufficiently big and because a too rapid dilution of the body fluids causes death from water intoxication. The tolerance of water loss is of obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not have to remain near a water hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and far-flung pastures. Desert-adapted mammals have the further ability to feed normally when extremely dehydrated, it is a common experience in people that appetite is lost even under conditions of moderate thirst.
【題組】29. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Weather variations in the desert
(B) Adaptations of desert animals
(C) Diseased of desert animals
(D) Human use of desert animals.
30.【題組】30. According to the passage, why is light coloring an advantage to large desert animals?
(A) It helps them hide from predators.
(B) It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
(C) It helps them see their young at night
(D) It keeps them cool at night.
31.【題組】31. The word "maintaining" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
32.【題組】32. The author uses of Grant's gazelle as an example of
(A) an animal with a low average temperature
(B) an animal that is not as well adapted as the camel
(C) a desert animal that can withstand high body temperatures
(D) a desert animal with a constant body temperature
33.【題組】33. When is the internal temperature of a large desert mammal lower?
(A) Just before sunrise
(B) In the middle of the day
(C) Just after sunset
(D) Just after drinking
34.【題組】34. The word "tolerate" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
35.【題組】35. What causes water intoxication?
(A) Drinking too much water very quickly
(B) Drinking polluted water
(C) Bacteria in water
(D) Lack of water.
36.【題組】36. What does the author imply about desert-adapted mammals?
(A) They do not need to eat much food.
(B) They can eat large quantities quickly
(C) They easily lose their appetites.
(D) They can travel long distances looking for food.
37.【題組】37. Why does the author mention humans in the second paragraph?
(A) To show how they use camels.
(B) To contrast them to desert mammals.
(C) To give instructions about desert survival.
(D) To show how they have adapted to desert life.
38.【題組】38. The word "obtain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
39.【題組】39. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an adaptation of large desert animals?
(A) Variation in body temperatures
(B) Eating while dehydrated
(C) Drinking water quickly
(D) Being active at night.
Rent control is the system whereby the local government tells building owners how much they can charge their tenants in rent. In the United States, rent controls date back to at least World War II.
In 1943 the federal government imposed rent controls to help solve the problem of housing shortages during wartime. The federal program ended after the war, but in some locations, including New York City, controls continued. Under New York's controls, a landlord generally cannot raise rents on apartments as long as the tenants continue to renew their leases. In places such as Santa Monica, California, rent controls are more recent. They were spurred by the inflation of the 1970's, which, combined with California's rapid population growth, pushed housing prices, as well as rents, to record levels. In 1979 Santa Monica's municipal government ordered landlords to roll back their rents to the levels charged in 1978. Future rents could only go up by two-thirds as much as any increase in the overall price level.
In any housing market, rental prices perform three functions: (1) promoting the efficient maintenance of existing housing and stimulating the construction of new housing, (2) allocating existing scarce housing among competing claimants, and (3) rationing use of existing housing by potential renters.
One result of rent control is a decrease in the construction of new rental units. Rent controls have artificially depressed the most important long-term determinant of profitability - rents. Consider some examples. In a recent year in Dallas, Texas, with a 16 percent rental vacancy rate but no rent control laws, 11,000 new housing units were built. In the same year, in San Francisco, California, only 2,000 units were built. The major difference? San Francisco has only a 1.6 percent vacancy rate but stringent rent control laws. In New York City, except for government-subsidized construction, the only rental units being built are luxury units, which are exempt from controls. In Santa Monica, California, new apartments are not being constructed. New office rental space and commercial developments are, however. They are exempt from rent controls.
【題組】40. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The construction of apartments in the United States.
(B) Causes and effects of rent control
(C) The fluctuations of rental prices
(D) The shortage of affordable housing in the United States.
41.【題組】41. The word "They" in line 9 refers to
(A) the tenants
(B) their leases
(D) rent controls.
42.【題組】42. Which of the following was NOT a reason for the introduction of rent controls in Santa Monica, California?
(A) Rapid population growth
(C) Economic conditions during wartime
(D) Record-high housing prices
43.【題組】43. The phrase "roll back" in lines 11-12 is closest in meaning to
44.【題組】44. The word "stimulating" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) experimenting with
45.【題組】45. It can be inferred that the purpose of rent control is to
(A) protect tenants
(B) promote construction
(C) increase vacancy rates
(D) decrease sales of rental units
46.【題組】46. The word "depressed" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
47.【題組】47. The information in the last paragraph supports which of the following statements?
(A) San Francisco has eliminated its rent control laws.
(B) Rent control leads to a reduction in the construction of housing units
(C) Luxury apartments are rarely built when there is rent control
(D) There is a growing need for government-subsidized housing.
48.【題組】48. According to the passage, which of the following cities does NOT currently have rent controls?
(A) Santa Monica
(C) San Francisco
(D) New York City
49.【題組】49. The word "stringent" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
50.【題組】50. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT exempt from rent control?
(A) Luxury apartments
(B) Commercial development
(C) Moderately priced apartments
(D) Office space.