Before the 1500's, the western plains of North America were dominated by farmers. One group, the Mandans, lived in the upper Missouri River country, primarily in present-day North Dakota. They had large villages of houses built close together. The tight arrangement enabled the Mandans to protect themselves more easily from the attacks of others who might seek to obtain some of the food these highly capable farmers stored from one year to the next.
The women had primary responsibility for the fields. They had to exercise considerable skill to produce the desired results, for their northern location meant fleeting growing seasons. Winter often lingered; autumn could be ushered in by severe frost. For good measure, during the spring and summer, drought, heat, hail, grasshoppers, and other frustrations might await the wary grower.
Under such conditions, Mandan women had to grow maize capable of weathering adversity. They began as early as it appeared feasible to do so in the spring. clearing the land, using fire to clear stubble from the fields and then planting. From this point until the first green corn could be harvested, the crop required labor and vigilance.
Harvesting proceeded in two stages. In August the Mandans picked a smaller amount of the crop before it had matured fully. This green corn was boiled, dried, and shelled, with some of the maize slated for immediate consumption and the rest stored in animal-skin bags. Later in the fall, the people picked corn. They saved the best of the harvest for seeds or for trade, with the remainder eaten right away or stored for later use in underground reserves. With appropriate banking of the extra food, the Mandans protected themselves against the disaster of crop failure and accompanying hunger.
The women planted another staple, squash, about the first of June, and harvested it near the time of the green corn harvest. After they picked it, they sliced it, dried it, and strung the slices before they stored them. Once again, they saved the seed from the best of the year's crop. The Mandans also grew sunflowers and tobacco; the latter was the particular task of the old men.
1. The Mandans built their houses close together in order to
(A) guard their supplies of food
(B) protect themselves against the weather
(C) allow more room for growing corn
(D) share farming implements
4.【題組】4.Why does the author believe that the Mandans were skilled farmers?
(A) They developed effective fertilizers.
(B) They developed new varieties of corn.
(C) They could grow crops in most types of soil.
(D) They could grow crops despite adverse weather.
The elements other than hydrogen and helium exist In such small quantities that it is accurate to say that the universe somewhat more than 25 percent helium by weight and somewhat less than 25 percent hydrogen.
Astronomers have measured the abundance of helium throughout our galaxy and in other galaxies as well. Helium has been found In old stars, in relatively young ones, in interstellar gas, and in the distant objects known as quasars. Helium nuclei have also been found to be constituents of cosmic rays that fall on the earth (cosmic "rays" are not really a form of radiation; they consist of rapidly moving particles of numerous different kinds). It doesn't seem to make very much difference where the helium is found. Its relative abundance never seems to vary much. In some places, there may be slightly more of it; In others, slightly less, but the ratio of helium to hydrogen nuclei always remains about the same.
Helium is created in stars. In fact, nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen to helium are responsible for most of the energy that stars produce. However, the amount of helium that could have been produced in this manner can be calculated, and it turns out to be no more than a few percent. The universe has not existed long enough for this figure to he significantly greater. Consequently, if the universe is somewhat more than 25 percent helium now, then it must have been about 25 percent helium at a time near the beginning..
However, when the universe was less than one minute old, no helium could have existed. Calculations indicate that before this time temperatures were too high and particles of matter were moving around much too rapidly. It was only after the one-minute point that helium could exist. By this time, the universe had cooled sufficiently that neutrons and protons could stick together. But the nuclear reactions that led to the formation of helium went on for only a relatively short time. By the time the universe was a few minutes old, helium production had effectively ceased.
【題組】12. what does the passage mainly explain?
(A)How stars produce energy
(B)The difference between helium and hydrogen
(C)When most of the helium in the universe was formed
(D)Why hydrogen is abundant
13.【題組】13. According to the passage, helium is
(A) the second-most abundant element in the universe
(B) difficult to detect
(C) the oldest element in the universe
(D) the most prevalent element in quasars
15.【題組】15. Why does the author mention "cosmic rays't' in line 7?
(A)As part of a list of things containing helium
(B) As an example of an unsolved astronomical puzzle
(C) To explain how the universe began
(D) To explain the abundance of hydrogen in the universe
17.【題組】17. The creation of helium within stars
(A) cannot be measured
(B) produces energy
(C) produces hydrogen as a by-product
(D) causes helium to be much more abundant In old stars than In young star:
In colonial America, people generally covered their beds with decorative quilts resembling those of the lands from which the quitters had come. Wealthy and socially prominent settlers made quilts of the English type, cut from large lengths of cloth of the same color and texture rather than stitched together from smaller pieces. They mad these until the advent of the Revolutionary War in I 775, when everything English came to be frowned upon.
Among the whole-cloth quilts made by these wealthy settlers during the early period are those now called linsey-woolseys. This term was usually applied to a fabric of wool and linen used In heavy clothing and quilted petticoats worn in the wintertime. Despite the name, linsey-woolsey bedcovers did not often contain linen. Rather, they were made of a lop layer of woolen or glazed worsted wool fabric, consisting of smooth, compact yarn from long wool fiber dyed dark blue, green, or brown with a bottom layer of a coarser woolen material, either natural or a shade of yellow. The filling was a soft layer of wool which had been cleaned and separated and the three layers were held together with decorative stitching done with homespun linen thread. Later, cotton thread WM used for this purpose. The design of the stitching was often a simple one composed of interlocking circles or crossed diagonal lines giving a diamond pattern.
This type of heavy, warm, quilted bedcover was so large that it hung to the floor. The corners are cut out at the foot of the cover so that the quilt fit snugly around the tall four-poster, beds of the 1700's, which differed from those of today in that they were shorter and wider; they were short because people slept in a semi-sitting position with many bolsters or pillows, and wide, because each bed often slept three or more. The linsey-woolsey covering was found in the colder regions of the country because of the warmth it afforded. There was no central heating and most bedrooms did not have fireplaces.
【題組】21. What does this passage mainly discuss?
(A) The processing of wool
(B) Linsey-woolsey bedcovers
(C) Sleeping habits of colonial Americans
(D) Quilts made in England
23.【題組】23. The author mention the Revolutionary War as a time period when
(A) quills were supplied to the army
(B) more immigrants arrived from England
(C) quills imported from England became harder to find
(D) people's attitudes toward England changed.
28.【題組】28. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that the sleeping habits
of most Americans have changed since the 1700's in all the following ways EXCEPT
(A) the position in which people sleep
(B) the numbers of bolsters or pillows people sleep on
(C) the length of time people sleep
(D) the number of people who sleep in one bed
30.【題組】30. Which of the following was most likely to be found in a bedroom in the colder areas of the American colonies?
(B)A vent from a central healing system
(C) A fireplace
(D) A wood stove
Growing tightly packed together and collectively weaving a dense canopy of branches, a stand of red alder trees can totally dominate a site to the exclusion of almost everything else. Certain species such as salmonberry and sword ferns have Line adapted to the limited sunlight dappling through the canopy, but few evergreen trees (S) will survive there; still fewer can compete with the early prodigious growth of alders. A Douglas fir tree reaches its maximum rate of growth ten years later than an alder, and if the two of them begin life at the same time, the alder quickly outgrows and dominates the Douglas fir. After an alder canopy has closed, the Douglas fir suffers a marked decrease in growth, often dying within seven years. Even more shade-tolerant
species of trees such as hemlock may remain badly suppressed beneath aggressive young alders.
Companies engaged in intensive timber cropping naturally take a dim view of alders suppressing more valuable evergreen trees. But times are changing; a new generation of foresters seems better prepared to Include in their management plans consideration of the vital ecological role alders, play.
Among the alder's valuable ecological contributions is its capacity to fix nitrogen in nitrogen-deficient soils. Alder roots contain clusters of nitrogen-fixing nodules like those found on legumes such as beans. in addition, newly developing soils exposed by recent glacier retreat and planted with alders show that these trees are applying the equivalent of ten bags of high-nitrogen fertilizer to each hectare per year. Other chemical changes to soil in which they are growing Include a lowering of the base content and rise In soil acidity, as well as a substantial addition of carbon and calcium. to the soil,
Another important role many alders play in the wild, particularly in mountainous areas, is to check the rush of water during spring melt. In Japan and elsewhere, the trees are planted to stabilize soil on steep mountain slopes. Similarly, alders have been planted to stabilize and rehabilitate waste material left over from old mines, flood deposits, and landslide areas in both Europe and Asia.
【題組】31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)Differences between alder trees and Douglas fir trees
(B)Alder trees as a source of timber
(C)Management plans for using alder trees to improve soil
(D)The relation of alder trees to their forest environments
35.【題組】35. It can be inferred from paragraph I that hemlock trees
(A) are similar in size to alder trees.
(B) interfere with the growth of Douglas fir trees
(C) reduce the number of alder trees In the forest
(D) need less sunlight than do Douglas fir trees
36.【題組】36. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that previous generations of foresters
(A) did not study the effects of alders on forests
(B) did not want alders In forests
(C) harvested alders for lumber
(D) used alders to control the growth of evergreens
39.【題組】39. It can be Inferred from the passage that alders are used in mountainous areas to
(A) prevent water from carrying away soil
(B) hold the snow
(C) protect mines
(D) provide material for housing
40.【題組】40. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
(A) To argue that alder trees are useful in forest management
(B) To explain the life cycle of alder trees
(C) To criticize the way alders take over and eliminate forests
(D) To illustrate how alder trees control soil erosion
In taking ups new life across the Atlantic, the early European settlers of the United States did not abandon the diversions with which their ancestors had traditionally relieved the tedium of life. Neither the harshness of existence on the new continent nor Line the scattered population nor the disapproval of the clergy discouraged the majority from the pursuit of pleasure.
City and country dwellers. of course. conducted this pursuit in different ways. Farm dwellers in their isolation not only found it harder to locate companions in play but also thanks to the unending demands and pressures of their work, felt it necessary to combine fun with purpose. No other set of colonists too so seriously one expression of the period. "Leisure Is time for doing something useful." in the countryside farmers therefore relieved the burden of the daily routine with such relaxation as hunting. fishing, and trapping. When a neighbor needed help, families rallied from miles around to assist In building a house or barn, husking corn, shearing sheep. or chopping wood. Food, drink, and celebration after the group work provided relaxation and soothed weary muscles.
The most eagerly anticipated social events were the rural fairs, Hundreds of men, women, and children attended from far and near. The men bought or traded farm animals and acquired needed merchandise while the women displayed food prepared in their kitchens, and everyone, Including the youngsters, watched or participated in a variety of competitive sports, with prizes awarded to the winners. These events typically included horse races, wrestling matches, and foot races, as well as some nonathletic events such as whistling competitions. No other occasions did so much to relieve the isolation of farm existence.
With the open countryside everywhere at hand, city dwellers naturally shared in some of the rural diversions. Favored recreations included fishing, hunting1 skating, and swimming. But city dwellers also developed other pleasures. which only compact communities made possible.
【題組】41. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) Methods of farming used by early settlers of the United States
(B) Hardships faced by the early settlers of the United States
(C) Methods of buying, selling, and trading used by early settlers of the United States
(D) Ways in which early settlers of the United States relaxed
42.【題組】42. What can be inferred about the diversions of the early settlers of the United States?
(A) They followed a pattern begun in Europe.
(B) They were enjoyed more frequently than in Europe.
(C) The clergy organized them.
(D) Only the wealthy participated in them.
43.【題組】43. Which of 'he following can be said about the country dwellers' attitude toward "the pursuit of pleasure"?
(A) They felt that it should help keep their minds on their work.
(B) They felt that it was not necessary.
(C) They felt that it should be. productive.
(D) They felt that it should not involve eating and drinking.
48.【題組】48. Which of the following can be said about the rural diversions mentioned in the last paragraph in which city dwellers also participated?
(A) They were useful to the rural community.
(B) They involved the purchase items useful in the home.
(C) They were activities that could be done equally easily in the towns
(D) They were all outdoor activities.
49.【題組】49. What will the author probably discuss in the paragraph following this passage?
(A) The rural diversions enjoyed by both urban and rural people
(B) Leisure activities of city dwellers
(C) Building methods of the early settlers in rural areas
(D)Changes in the lifestyles of settlers' as they moved to the cities