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TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)題庫 下載題庫


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The Native Americans of northern California were highly skilled at basketry, using the reeds, grasses, bards, and roots they found around them to fashion articles of all sorts and sizes - not only trays, containers, and cooking pots, but hats, boats, fish traps, baby carriers, and ceremonial objects. Of all these experts, none excelled the Pomo - a group who lived on or near the coast during the 1800's, and whose descendants continue to live in parts of the same region to the same region to this day. They made baskets three feet in diameter and others no bigger than a thimble. The Pomo people were masters of decoration. Some of their baskets were completely covered with shell pendants; others with feathers that made the baskets' surfaces as soft as the breasts of birds. Moreover, the Pomo people made use of more weaving techniques than did their neighbors. Most groups made all their basketwork by twining - the twisting of a flexible horizontal material, called a weft, around stiffer vertical strands of material, the warp. Others depended primarily on coiling - a process in which a continuous coil of stiff material is held in the desired shape with tight wrapping of flexible strands. Only the Pomo people used both processes with equal case and frequency. In addition, they made use of four distinct variations on the basic twining process, often employing more than one of them in a single article. Although a wide variety of materials was available, the Pomo people used only a few. The warp was always made of willow, and the most commonly used welt was sedge root, a woody fiber that could easily be separated into strands no thicker than a thread. For color, the Pomo people used the bark of redbud for their twined work and dyed bullrush root for black in coiled work. Though other materials were sometimes used, these four were the staples in their finest basketry. If the basketry materials used by the Pomo people were limited, the designs were amazingly varied. Every Pomo basketmaker knew how to produce from fifteen to twenty distict patterns that could be combined in a number of different ways.

【題組】 1. What best distinguished Pomo baskets from baskets of other groups?
(A) The range of sizes, shapes, and designs
(B) The unusual geometric
(C) The absence of decoration
(D) The rare materials used
2.【題組】2. The word "fashion" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) maintain
(B) organize
(C) trade
(D) create
3.【題組】3. The Pomo people used each of the following materials to decorate baskets EXCEPT
(A) shells
(B) feathers
(C) leaves
(D) bark
4.【題組】4. What is the author's main point in the second paragraph?
(A) The neighbors of the Pomo people tried to improve on the Pomo basket weaving techniques.
(B) The Pomo people were the most skilled basket weavers in their region.
(C) The Pomo people learned their basket weaving techniques from other Native Americans.
(D) The Pomo baskets have been handed down for generations.
5.【題組】5. The word "others " in line 9 refers to
(A) masters
(B) baskets
(C) pendants
(D) surfaces
6.【已刪除】【題組】6. According to the passage is a
(A) tool for separating sedge root
(B) process used for coloring baskets
(C) pliable maternal woven around the warp
(D) pattern used to decorate baskets
7.【題組】7. According to the passage, what did the Pomo people use as the warp in their baskets?
(A) Bullrush
(B) willow
(C) Sedge
(D) Redbud
8.【題組】8. The word "article" in line 17 is close in meaning to
(A) decoration
(B) shape
(C) design
(D) object
9.【題組】9. According to the passage. The relationship between redbud and twining is most similar to the relationship between
(A) bullrush and coiling
(B) weft and warp
(C) willow and feathers
(D) sedge and weaving
10.【題組】10. The word "staples" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) combinations
(B) limitations
(C) accessories
(D) basic elements
11.【題組】11. The word "distinct" in lime 26 is closest in meaning to
(A) systematic
(B) beautiful
(C) different
(D) compatible
12.【題組】12. Which of the following statements about Pomo baskets can be best inferred from the passage?
(A) Baskets produced by other Native Americans were less varied in design than those of the Pomo people.
(B) Baskets produced by Pomo weavers were primarily for ceremonial purposes.
(C) There was a very limited number of basketmaking materials available to the Pomo people.
(D) The basketmaking production of the Pomo people has increased over the years.
13.Questions 13-20 Any rock that has cooled and solidified from a molten state is an igneous rock. Therefore, if the Earth began as a superheated sphere in space, all the rocks making up its crust may well have been igneous and thus the ancestors of all other rocks. Even today, approximately 95 percent of the entire crust is igneous. Periodically, molten material wells out of the Earth's interior to invade the surface layers or to flow onto the surface itself. This material cools into a wide variety of igneous rocks. In the molten state, it is called magma as it pushes into the crust and lava when it runs out onto the surface. All magma consists basically of a variety of silicate minerals (high in silicon-oxygen compounds), but the chemical composition of any given flow may differ radically from that of any other. The resulting igneous rocks will reflect these differences. Igneous rocks also vary in texture as well as chemistry. Granite, for instance, is a coarse-grained igneous rock whose individual mineral crystals have formed to a size easily seen by the naked eye. A slow rate of cooling has allowed the crystals to reach this size. Normally, slow cooling occurs when the crust is invaded by magma that remains buried well below the surface. Granite may be found on the surface of the contemporary landscape, but from its coarse texture we know that it must have formed through slow cooling at a great depth and later been laid bare by erosion. Igneous rocks with this coarse-grained texture that formed at depth are called plutonic. On the other hand, if the same magma flows onto the surface and is quickly cooled by the atmosphere, the resulting rock will be fine-grained and appear quite different from granite, although the chemical composition will be identical. This kind of rock is called rhyolite. The most finely grained igneous rock is volcanic glass or obsidian, which has no crystals. Some researchers believe this is because of rapid cooling; others believe it is because of a lack of water vapor and other gases in the lava. The black obsidian cliffs of Yellowstone National Park are the result of a lava flow of basalt running head on into a glacier. Some of the glacier melted on contact, but suddenly there also appeared a huge black mass of glassy stone.
【題組】13. In the first paragraph, the author mentions that
(A) the Earth began as a molten mass
(B) a thin layer of magma flows beneath the Earth's crust
(C) the minerals found in igneous rock are very common
(D) igneous rock is continually being formed
14.【題組】14.The word "invade" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) move into
(B) neutralize
(C) cover
(D) deposit
15.【題組】15.The word "contemporary" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) vast
(B) natural
(C) existing
(D) uneven
16.【題組】16. The word "it" in line 17 refers to
(A) granite
(B) surface
(C) landscape
(D) texture
17.【題組】17. Granite that has been found above ground has been
(A) pushed up from below the crust by magma
(B) produced during a volcanic explosion
(C) gradually exposed due to erosion
(D) pushed up by the natural shifting of the Earth
18.【題組】18. Which of the following is produced when magma cools rapidly?
(A) Granite
(B) Plutonic rock
(C) Rhyolite
(D) Mineral crystals
19.【題組】19. The word "finely" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) minutely
(B) loosely
(C) sensitively
(D) purely
20.【題組】20. Which of the following is another name for volcanic glass?
(A) Plutonic rock
(B) Crystal
(C) Lava
(D) Obsidian
21.Questions 21-33 Although only 1 person in 20 in the Colonial period lived in a city, the cities had a disproportionate influence on the development of North America. They were at the cutting edge of social change. It was in the cities that the elements that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared - the use of money and commercial paper in place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy, with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coat or water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools. "The cities predicted the future," wrote historian Gary.B.Nash , "even though they were but overgrown villages compared to the great urban centers of Europe, the Middle East and China." Except for Boston, whose population stabilized at about 16,000 in 1760, cities grew by exponential leaps through the eighteenth century. In the fifteen years prior to the outbreak of the War for independence in 1775, more than 200,000 immigrants arrived on North American shores This meant that a population the size of Boston was arriving every year, and most of it flowed into the port cities in the Northeast. Philadelphia's population nearly doubted in those years, reaching about 30,000 in 1774, New York grew at almost the same rate, reaching about 25,000 by 1775. The quality of the hinterland dictated the pace of growth of the cities. The land surrounding Boston had always been poor farm country, and by the mid-eighteenth century it was virtually stripped of its timber. The available farmland was occupied, there was little in the region beyond the city to attract immigrants. New York and Philadelphia, by contrast, served a rich and fertile hinterland laced with navigable watercourses. Scots, Irish, and Germans landed in these cities and followed the rivers inland. The regions around the cities of New York and Philadelphia became the breadbaskets of North America, sending grain not only to other colonies but also to England and southern Europe, where crippling droughts in the late 1760's created a whole new market.
【題組】21. Which of the following aspects of North America in the eighteenth century does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effects of war on the growth of cities
(B) The growth and influence of cities
(C) The decline of farming in areas surrounding cities
(D) The causes of immigration to cities
22.【題組】22. Why does the author say that "the cities had a disproportionate influence on the development of North America "lines1-2"?
(A) The influence of the cities was mostly negative
(B) The populations of the cities were small, but their influence was great.
(C) The cities were growing at a great rate.
(D) Most people pretended to live in cities
23.【題組】23. The phrase "in place of " in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) connected to
(B) in addition to
(C) because of
(D) instead of
24.【題組】24. The word "attendant" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) avoidable
(B) accompanying
(C) unwelcome
(D) unexpected
25.【題組】25. Which of the following is mentioned as an element of modern capitalism?
(A) Open competition
(B) Social deference
(C) Social hierarchy
(D) Independent craftspeople
26.【題組】26. It can be inferred that in comparison with North American cities, cities in Europe, the Middle East, and China had
(A) large populations
(B) little independence
(C) frequent social disorder
(D) few power sources
27.【題組】27. The phrase "exponential leaps" in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) long wars
(B) new laws
(C) rapid increases
(D) exciting changes
28.【題組】28. The word "it" in line 15 refers to
(A) population
(B) size
(C) Boston
(D) Year
29.【題組】29. How many immigrants arrived in North America between 1760 and 1775?
(A) About 16,000
(B) About 25,000
(C) About 30,000
(D) More than 200,000
30.【題組】30. The word "dictated" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) spoiled
(B) reduced
(C) determined
(D) divided
31.【題組】31. The word "virtually" in line20 is closest in meaning to
(A) usually
(B) hardly
(C) very quickly
(D) almost completely
32.【題組】32. The region surrounding New York and Philadelphia is contrasted with the region surrounding Boston in terms of
(A) quality of farmland
(B) origin of immigrants
(C) opportunities for fishing
(D) type of grain grown
33.【題組】33. Why does the author describe the regions around the cities of New York and Philadelphia as "breadbaskets"?
(A) They produced grain especially for making bread.
(B) They stored large quantities of grain during periods of drought
(C) They supplied grain to other parts of North America and other countries.
(D) They consumed more grain than all the other regions of North America.
34.Questions 34-44 Researchers in the field of psychology have found that one of the best ways to make an important decision, such as choosing a university to attend or a business to invest in, involves the utilization of a decision worksheet. Psychologists who study optimization compare the actual decisions made by people to theoretical ideal decisions to see how similar they are. Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield optimal, that is , the best decisions. Although there are several variations on the exact format that worksheets can take, they are all similar in their essential aspects. Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that will be affected by each decision are listed, and the relative importance of each consideration or consequence is determined. Each consideration is assigned a numerical value to reflect its relative importance. A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best decision. Since most important problems are multifaceted, there are several alternatives to choose from, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. One of the benefits of a pencil and paper decision-making procedure is that it permits people to deal with more variables than their minds can generally comprehend and remember. On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once. A worksheet can be especially useful when the decision involves a large number of variables with complex relationships. A realistic example for many college students is the question "What sill I do after graduation?" A graduate might seek a position that offers specialized training, pursue an advanced degree, or travel abroad for a year. A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it. It is important to be clear about the distinction between long-range and immediate goals because long-range goals often involve a different decision than short-range ones. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduating student might revise the question above to "What will I do after graduation that will lead to successful career?"
【題組】34. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) A tool to assist in making complex decisions.
(B) A comparison of actual decisions and ideal decisions
(C) Research on how people make decisions
(D) Differences between long-range and short-range decision making
35.【題組】35. The word "essential" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) introductory
(B) changeable
(C) beneficial
(D) fundamental
36.【題組】36. The word "pertinent" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) relevant
(B) preceding
(C) insightful
(D) responsive
37.【題組】37. Of the following steps, which occurs before the others in making a decision worksheet?
(A) Listing the consequences of each solution
(B) Calculating a numerical summary of each solution
(C) Deciding which consequences are most important
(D) Writing down all possible solutions
38.【題組】38. According to decision-worksheet theory, an optimal decision is defined as one that
(A) has the fewest variables to consider
(B) uses the most decision worksheets
(C) has the most points assigned to it
(D) is agreed to by the greatest number of people
39.【題組】39. The author develops the discussion in paragraph I by means of
(A) describing a process
(B) classifying types of worksheets
(C) providing historical background
(D) explaining a theory
40.【題組】40. The author states that "On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once (lines 18-19) to explain that
(A) most decisions involve seven steps
(B) human mental capacity has limitations
(C) some people have difficulty making minor as well as major decisions
(D) people can learn to keep more than seven ideas in their minds with practice
41.【題組】41. The word "succinct "in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) creative
(B) satisfactory
(C) personal
(D) concise
42.【題組】42. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) Proponents (line 5)
(B) Optimal (line 6)
(C) Variables (line 18)
(D) Long-range goals (line 26)
43.【題組】43. The word "it" in line 25 refers to
(A) worksheet
(B) problem
(C) distinction
(D) decision
44.【題組】44. The word "revise" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
(A) ask
(B) explain
(C) change
(D) predict
45.Questions 45-50 Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown copatented one of the most widely acclaimed wonder drugs of the post-Second World War years. Hazen and Brown's work was stimulated by the wartime need to find a cure for the fungus infections that afflicted many military personnel. Scientists had been feverishly searching for an antibiotic toxic enough to kill the fungi but safe enough for human use, since, unfortunately, the new "wonder drugs" such as penicillin and streptomycin killed the very bacteria in the body that controlled the fungi. It was to discover a fungicide without that double effect that Brown, of New York State's Department of Health Laboratories at Albany, and Hazen, senior microbiologist at the Department of Health in New York, began their long-distance collaboration. Based upon Hazen's previous research at Columbia University, where she had built an impressive collection of fungus cultures, both were convinced that an antifungal organism already existed in certain soils. They divided the work. Hazen methodically screened and cultured scores of soil samples, which she then sent to her partner, who prepared extracts, isolated and purified active agents, and shipped them back to New York, where Hazen could study their biological properties. On a 1948 vacation, Hazen fortuitously collected a clump of soil from the edge of W.B. Nourse's cow pasture, Hazen fortuitously collected a clump of soil from the edge of W.B. Nourse's cow pasture in Fauquier County, Virginia, that, when tested, revealed the presence of the microorganisms. In farm owner Nourse's honor. Hazen named it Streptomyces noursei, and within a year the two scientists knew that the properties of their substance distinguished it from previously described antibiotics. After further research they eventually reduced their substance to a fine, yellow powder, which they first named "fungiciden." Then renamed "nystatin" (to honor the New York State laboratory) when they learned the previous name was already in use. Of their major discovery, Brown said lightly that it simply illustrated "how unpredictable consequences can come from rather modest beginnings."
【題組】45. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The lives of Hazen and Brown.
(B) The development of a safe fungicide.
(C) The New York State Department of Health.
(D) The development of penicillin.
46.【題組】46. What can be inferred from the passage about penicillin?
(A) It effectively treats fungus infections.
(B) It was developed before nystatin.
(C) It was developed before the Second World War.
(D) One of its by-products is nystatin.
47.【題組】47. Why does the author mention Columbia University in lines 10 and 11?
(A) Hazen and Brown developed nystatin there.
(B) Brown was educated there.
(C) Hazen did research there.
(D) It awarded a prize to Hazen and Brown.
48.【題組】48. The word "both" in line 11 refers to
(A) Hazen and Brown
(B) penicillin and streptomycin
(C) the Department of Health laboratories at Albany and New York
(D) double effect
49.【題組】49. What substance did Brown and Hazen analyze?
(A) Dirt
(B) Streptomycin
(C) Bacteria
50.【題組】50. Who was W. B. Nourse?
(A) A microbiologist
(B) A teacher of Hazen's
(C) A collector of fungi
(D) A farmer