1.26.Most substances contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance's solid is _______ of its liquid. (A) than the higher density (B) higher than the density (C) the density is higher than that (D) the higher the density
2.27. An image on a national flag can symbolize political ideals that _______ express.
(A) take many words to otherwise would (B) would take to many otherwise words
(C) many words to take would otherwise (D) would otherwise take many words to
3.28.In 1784, the leaders of what would later become the state of Virginia gave up ______ to the
territory that later became five different Midwestern states.
(A) any claim (B) when the claim (C) to claim (D) would claim
4.29.Not until Kentucky's Mammoth Cave had been completely explored in 1972 _____.
(A) when was its full extent realized (B) that its full extent realized
(C) was its full extent realized (D) the realization of its full extent
5.30.The knee is _____ most other joints in the body because it cannot twist without injury.
(A) more likely to be damaged than (B) likely to be more than damaged
(C) more than likely to be damaged (D) to be damaged more than likely
6.31-35The development of jazz can be seen as part of the larger continuum of American popular music, especially dance music. In the twenties, jazz became the hottest new thing in dance music, much as ragtime had at the turn of the century, and as would rhythm and blues in the fifties, rock in the sixties, and disco in the seventies.
But two characteristics distinguish jazz from other dance music. The first is improvisation, the changing of a musical phrase according to the player's inspiration. Like all artists, jazz musicians strive for an individual style, and the improvise or paraphrase is a jazz musician's main opportunity to display
his or her individuality. In early jazz, musicians often improvised melodies collectively, thus creating a kind of polyphony. There was little soloing as such, although some New Orleans players, particularly cornet player Buddy Bolden, achieved local fame for their ability to improvise a solo. Later the idea of the chorus-long or multi-chorus solo took hold. Louis Armstrong's instrumental brilliance, demonstrated through extended solos, was a major influence in this development.
Even in the early twenties, however, some jazz bands had featured soloists. Similarly, show orchestras and carnival bands often included one or two such "get-off" musicians. Unimproved, completely structured jazz does exist, but the ability of the best jazz musicians to create music of great cohesion and beauty during performance has been a hallmark of the music and its major source of inspiration and change.
The second distinguishing characteristic of jazz is a rhythmic drive that was initially called "hot" and later "swing." In playing hot, a musician consciously departs from strict meter to create a relaxed sense of phrasing that also emphasizes the underlying rhythms. ("Rough" tone and use of moderate vibrato also contributed to a hot sound.) Not all jazz is hot, however, many early bands played unadorned published arrangements of popular songs. Still, the proclivity to play hot distinguished the jazz musician from other
31. The passage answers which of the following questions?
(A) Which early jazz musicians most influenced rhythm and blues music?
(B) What are the differences between jazz and other forms of music?
(C) Why is dancing closely related to popular music in the United States?
(D) What instruments comprised a typical jazz band of the 1920's?
7.【題組】32. Which of the following preceded jazz as a popular music for dancing?
(A) Disco. (B) Rock. (C) Ragtime. (D) Rhythm and blues.
8.【題組】33. According to the passage, jazz musicians are able to demonstrate their individual artistry mainly
(A) preparing musical arrangements
(B) creating musical variations while performing
(C) reading music with great skill
(D) being able to play all types of popular music
One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate –every thousand women aged fifteen to forty-four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it, young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946, 106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid-1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the flood. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed, large numbers of teachers left their profession for better-paying jobs elsewhere in the economy.
Therefore, in the 1950's and 1960's, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the "custodial rhetoric" of the 1930's and early 1940's no longer made sense; that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering
nontraditional, new, and extra services to older youths. 【題組】
36. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The teaching profession during the baby boom.
(B) Birth rates in the United States in the 1930's and 1940’s.
(C) The impact of the baby boom on public education.
(D) The role of the family in the 1950's and 1960's.
10.【題組】37. The public school of the 1950's and 1960's faced all of the following problems EXCEPT ______.
(A) a declining number of students (B) old-fashioned facilities
(C) a shortage of teachers (D) an inadequate number of school buildings
11.【題組】According to the passage, why did teachers leave the teaching profession after the outbreak of the
(A) They needed to be retrained.
(B) They were dissatisfied with the curriculum.
(C) Other jobs provided higher salaries.
(D) Teaching positions were scarce.
12.【題組】39. The "custodial rhetoric" mentioned in 2nd paragraph line 21 refers to ______.
(A) raising a family
(B) keeping older individuals in school
(C) running an orderly household
(D) maintaining discipline in the classroom
13.【題組】40. Which of the following best characterizes the organization of the passage?
(A) The second paragraph presents the effect of circumstances described in the first paragraph.
(B) The second paragraph provides a fictional account to illustrate a problem presented in the first
(C) The second paragraph argues against a point made in the first paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph introduces a problem not mentioned in the first paragraph.
What we today call America folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday "folks" who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits. Citizens of prosperous, essentially middle-class republics—whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans—have always shown a marked taste for portraiture. Starting in the late eighteenth century, the United States contained increasing numbers of such people, and of the artists how could meet their demands.
The earliest American folk art portraits come, not surprisingly, from New England—especially Connecticut and Massachusetts—for this was a wealthy and populous region and the center of a strong craft tradition. Within a few decades after the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the population was pushing westward, and portrait painters could be found at work in western New York, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Midway through its first century as a nation, the United States' population had increased roughly five times, and eleven new states had been added to the original thirteen. During these years the demand for portraits grew and grew, eventually to be satisfied by the camera. In 1839 the daguerreotype was introduced to America, ushering in the age of photography, and within a generation the new invention put an end to the popularity of painted portraits. Once again an original portrait became a luxury, commissioned by the wealthy and executed by the professional.
But in the heyday of portrait painting—from the late eighteenth century until the 1850's—anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner, as such a portraitist was called. Local craftspeople—sign, coach, and house painters—began to paint portraits as a profitable sideline; sometimes a talented man or woman who began by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests for portraits; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait painting. 【題組】
41. In 1st paragraph line 4, the author mentions seventeenth-century Dutch burghers as an example
of a group that ______.
(A) consisted mainly of self taught artists (B) appreciated portraits
(C) influenced American folk art (D) had little time for the arts
15.【題組】42. According to the passage, where were many of the first American folk art portraits painted?
(A) In western New York. (B) In Illinois and Missouri.
(C) In Connecticut and Massachusetts. (D) In Ohio.
16.【題組】43. How much did the population of United States increase in the first fifty years following independence?
(A) It became three times larger. (B) It became five times larger.
(C) It became eleven times larger. (D) It became thirteen times larger.
17.【題組】44. The relationship between the daguerreotype (2nd paragraph line 16) and the painted portrait is
similar to the relationship between the automobile and the _________.
(A) horse-drawn carriage (B) driver (C) highway (D) engine
18.【題組】45. According to the passage, which of the following contributed to a decline in the demand for
(A) The lack of a strong craft tradition.
(B) The westward migration of many painters.
(C) The growing preference for landscape paintings.
(D) The invention of the camera.
19.In colonial America, people generally covered their beds with decorative quilts resembling those of the lands from which the quitters had come. Wealthy and socially prominent settlers made quilts of the English type, cut from large lengths of cloth of the same color and texture rather than stitched together from smaller pieces. They made these until the advent of the Revolutionary War in 1775, when everything English came to be frowned upon.
Among the whole-cloth quilts made by these wealthy settlers during the early period are those now called linsey-woolseys. This term was usually applied to a fabric of wool and linen used in heavy clothing and quilted petticoats worn in the wintertime. Despite the name, linsey-woolsey bedcovers did not often contain linen. Rather, they were made of a top layer of woolen or glazed worsted wool fabric, consisting of smooth, compact yarn from long wool fiber dyed dark blue, green, or brown with a bottom layer of a coarser woolen material, either natural or a shade of yellow. The filling was a soft layer of wool which had been cleaned and separated and the three layers were held together with decorative stitching done with homespun linen thread. Later, cotton thread was used for this purpose. The design of the stitching was often a simple one composed of interlocking circles or crossed diagonal lines giving a diamond
This type of heavy, warm, quilted bedcover was so large that it hung to the floor. The corners are cut out at the foot of the cover so that the quilt fit snugly around the tall four-poster, beds of the 1700's, which differed from those of today in that they were shorter and wider; they were short because people slept in a semi-sitting position with many bolsters or pillows, and wide, because each bed often slept three or more. The linsey-woolsey covering was found in the colder regions of the country because of the warmth it afforded. There was no central heating and most edrooms did not have fireplaces. 【題組】
46. What does this passage mainly discuss?
(A) The processing of wool.
(B) Linsey-woolsey bedcovers.
(C) Sleeping habits of colonial Americans.
(D) Quilts made in England.
20.【題組】47. The author mention the Revolutionary War as a time period when ______.
(A) quilts were supplied to the army
(B) more immigrants arrived from England
(C) quilts imported from England became harder to find
(D) people's attitudes toward England changed
21.【題組】48. The term "linsey-woolsey" originally meant fabric used primarily in ______.
(A) quilts (B) sheets (C) clothing (D) pillows
22.【題組】49. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that the sleeping habits of most Americans have changed since the 1700's in all the following ways EXCEPT ______.
(A) the position in which people sleep
(B) the numbers of bolsters or pillows people sleep on
(C) the length of time people sleep
(D) the number of people who sleep in one bed
23.【題組】50. Which of the following was most likely to be found in a bedroom in the colder areas of the American colonies?
(A) A linsey-woolsey. (B) A vent from a central healing system.
(C) A fireplace. (D) A wood stove.