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New babies eat, sleep, cry, poop — and listen. But their eavesdropping begins 
before birth and may include language lessons, says a new study led by 
Christine Moon, a psychologist at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Wash
According to Moon, such early learning may help babies quickly understand their parents.
Scientists have known that about 10 weeks before birth, a fetus can hear sounds 
outside the womb. Until now, evidence suggested that prenatal learning was 
restricted to the melody, rhythm and loudness of voices. But Moon and her 
coworkers found evidence that fetuses may also be starting to learn language 
itself. They tested whether newborns could detect differences in vowel sounds
Her team reports that newborns responded one way when they heard sounds like 
those from their parentslanguage. And the newborns responded another way 
when they heard sounds like those from a foreign language.
Moon’s team studied 80 healthy newborns ranging from 7 to 75 hours old, half in U.S. hospitals and half in Swedish hospitals. Each baby had a pair of headphones 
nearby. When a baby sucked on a pacifier, the action triggered an attached 
computer to send sounds through the headphones. The babies listened to 17 
sounds similar to the long e in English, heard in the word fee, for example
They also listened to 17 sounds similar to a Swedish vowel that sounds like yeh. 
The results showed that American babies were more likely to continue sucking on their pacifiers when they heard Swedish vowels than when they heard English 
vowel sounds and Swedish babies were more likely to continue sucking if they 
heard English vowels. Learning so quickly after birth was unlikely, the researchers concluded, so the ability to monitor the vowels could be attributed only to 
prenatal learning.

Group21 What would be the best title for the passage?
(A) Learning Language Before Birth
(B) How to Articulate Vowels in a Womb
(C) Assessing Infant Sucking Dysfunction
(D) Sound Differences between English and Swedish .

【已刪除】Group22 Prenatal learning is learning that happens _____.
(A) at birth
(B) before birth
(C) after birth
(D) from fetus till puberty .

【已刪除】Group23 According to the passage, who did Christine Moon and her coworkers study?
(A) Fetuses who were about to be born in 10 weeks.
(B) Fetuses who showed evidence of hearing problems in the womb.
(C) Infants within seven and 75 hours of their birth.
(D) Babies of English-Swedish bilingual parents. .

【已刪除】Group24 According to the passage, American babies sucked on their pacifiers more times _____.
(A) upon hearing Swedish vowels than English vowels.
(B) when the sounds were a mixture of Swedish and English vowels.
(C) when the pacifiers were connected to a sound-generating computer.
(D) when the sounds they heard were from the headphones than when the sounds were said by their parents. .

【已刪除】Group25 According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) Newborn babies can tell native from foreign vowel sounds.
(B) Newborns react differently to native and foreign vowel sounds.
(C) Fetuses can hear outside sounds by about 10 weeks before birth.
(D) Prenatal learning of sounds does not include the volume and rhythm of a person’s voice. .

New York may be the most recent coastal city to become the victim of a 
climate-torqued natural disaster, but it is hardly the only metropolis in danger
A 2007 report by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 
found that 40 million people—and $3 trillion in assetslive in cities that could be exposed to major 1-in-100-year coastal-flood events, in metropolises like 
Shanghai, Miami and Mumbai. As these cities boom, so does their 
vulnerability—the same report estimates that by 2070, 150 million people and 
$35 trillion in assets could be exposed to major coastal floods. Even if global 
warming turns out to be less threatening than most climate scientists fear, there 
will be more people and more expensive property in harm’s way of coastal floods over the years to come. Worse, most of that growth will take place in developing 
nations that may lack the resources to adapt to climate change.
That sets the stage not just for a human disaster but also potentially for an 
economic one that could be felt well beyond the site of the catastrophe. Severe 
floods struck the Thai capital of Bangkok in 2011, inundating the factories that 
churn out as much as a quarter of the world’s disk drives. The floods cost
Thailand nearly $50 billion, but the disaster also disrupted global supply chains
leading to a worldwide shortage. “As global corporations expand into emerging 
growth markets, their operations and supply chains will become exposed to a 
complex set of climate risks,” said Helen Hodge, head of maps and indices at the
 risk-research firm Maplecroft, which recently published an urban climate 
vulnerability index. The lesson for cities and corporations is clear: prepare for 
climate change or risk turning a natural disaster into man-made catastrophe.
Dutch cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam aren’t the only examples of urban areas that have taken real—if expensivesteps to shore up against the effects of 
global warming. Like many old cities, London was built on a floodplain and was 
victimized by storm surges repeatedly throughout its historyincluding the 1953 Watersnoodramp. That flood persuaded British officials to begin building the 
great Thames Barrier, the second largest movable seawall in the world after the 
Delta Works. Finally completed in 1984 at the cost of more than $2 billion in 
today’s figures, the Thames Barrier is usually open to allow maritime traffic 
down one of the world’s busiest rivers. But the gates swing shut to protect 
London from a rising storm surge—a maneuver that has been required more than 100 times since the barrier was completed. The half-drowned Italian city of 
Venicewhich has to contend with rising sea levels even as it sinks at the rate of nearly 4 cm a century—is building the multibillion-dollar MOSE project, a network of seawalls meant to close off the city from surging tides.
In the weeks since Sandy, New York officials have been debating the wisdom of 
installing similar seawalls to protect Manhattan. (While New York City has more 
than 800 km of coastline, it has few physical defenses against flooding.) But most of the plans being considered would cost more than $10 billion, take years to 
complete and leave people and property beyond the seawalls at even greater risk of flooding. As the failure of the levees in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina 
showed, physical barriers don’t guarantee safetyespecially as climate change 
raises sea levels beyond what cities had prepared for. (The Thames Barrier will 
likely be outpaced by rising seas as soon as 2050.) “I don’t think there’s a 
practical way to build barriers in the ocean,” New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg 
said after Sandy hit. “If you spent a fortune, it’s not clear to me that you would 
get much value for it.”

Group26.According to the article, “as these cities boom, so does their vulnerability” in the first paragraph implies that _____.
(A) as the cities become larger, they are more capable of adapting to climate change
(B) it gets more difficult for city people to work cooperatively when it grows larger
(C) as the cities grow larger, the climate change will become more fearfully
(D) more people and more assets could be exposed to damaging coastal floods .

【已刪除】Group27 According to the article, which of the following cities has not taken real steps to shore up against the effects of global warming?
(A) Amsterdam
(B) Rotterdam
(C) London
(D) New York .

【已刪除】Group28 The “levees” in the last paragraph most likely means _____.
(A) administrations
(B) collaborations
(C) embankments
(D) policies .

【已刪除】Group29 Severe floods struck the Thai capital of Bangkok in 2011, leading to disrupted global supply chains because _____.
(A) the floods hindered 25% of worldwide supplies of disk drives
(B) developing nations lacked the resources to adapt to climate change
(C) it cost the city a fortune to install seawalls to close off the city from surging tides
(D) a large number of people were faced with the severe coastal flood .

【已刪除】Group30 According to the article, which of the following is the largest movable seawall in the world today?
(A) The Thames Barrier.
(B) The Delta Works.
(C) Watersnoodramp.
(D) The MOSE project. .