1.1. Statistical data are often relevant when discussing psychological disorders. For example, a
researcher might want to know how many new cases of depression are diagnosed each
year, a figure called the 7___________ of the disorder.
2.2. A psychological disorder is described as having an acute onset if the symptoms develop
__________, while it has an insidious onset if the symptoms develop __________ .
(A) suddenly； gradually
(B) suddenly； atypically
(C) gradually； atypically
(D) atypically； suddenly
3.3. According to the diathesis-stress model, monozygotic twins raised in the same household
(A) not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their
(B) have the same disorders because their diathesis and stress are exactly the same.
(C) not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their
(D) have no more likelihood of sharing a disorder than any other two randomly selected
individuals from the population.
4.4. Amanda learned to fear snakes after seeing one for the first time at the zoo. However, it
took many exposures to the sound of tapping dancing shoes before she learned to fear that
sound. The concept that would explain the fact that we learn to fear some objects more
easily than others is
(A) prepared learning.
(B) learned helplessness.
(C) observational learning.
(D) reciprocal determinism.
5.5. In the Stroop color naming paradigm, a patient with a blood phobia would be expected to
name the color of the printed word "wound"
(A) more quickly than a neutral word.
(B) in about the same time it takes to name the color of a neutral word.
(C) more slowly than a neutral word.
(D) with a great deal of difficulty or not at all.
6.6. Alice, who had recurrent headaches, fatigue, and loss of appetite, received different
diagnoses from several psychologists. In terms of assessment, this indicates a problem with
8.8. The reactivity phenomenon of self-monitoring procedures has been shown to
(A) increase desired behaviors.
(B) decrease undesired behaviors.
(C) both increase desired behaviors and decrease undesired behaviors.
(D) neither increase desired behaviors nor decrease undesired behaviors.
9.9. The problem with generating a false negative during an assessment strategy is that the
(A) will not receive treatment for an actual disorder.
(B) will receive treatment for a disorder they don’t have.
(C) will be tired of being tested.
(D) will be discredited.
10.10. The dimensional approach to classification of mental disorders differs from the categorical
approach because the dimensional system provides
(A) lists of symptoms that are associated with all of the forms of psychopathology that are
currently believed to exist.
(B) diagnostic labels based on the presence of specific symptoms.
(C) information that is used to determine the cause and treatment of the disorder.
(D) scales that indicate the degree to which patients are experiencing various cognitions,
moods, and behaviors.
11.11. The purpose of creating mini panic attacks in panic control treatment therapy is to
(A) help patients identify what makes them panic.
(B) allow the patient to develop alternative attitudes about the feared situation.
(C) convince the patient that panic attacks are not real
(D) force the panic attacks into the unconscious.
14.14. In regard to a type of thinking pattern found in some patients with OCD, which of the
following would be an example of thought-action fusion?
(A) Washing one's hands repeatedly to ward off germs
(B) Taking only very small steps while walking to prevent others from being in danger
(C) Believing that thinking about an abortion is the moral equivalent of having an abortion
(D) Saving stacks of old newspapers or magazines because they might be needed some day
15.15. Although both panic disorder patients and persons with somatic symptom disorder tend to
misinterpret bodily sensations, patients with panic disorder
(A) are having real physical sensations, while the sensations of those with somatic symptom
disorder are "all in their heads."
(B) tend to fear immediate catastrophe, while those with somatic symptom disorder tend to
fear long-term illness.
(C) are having imagined physical sensations, while those with somatic symptom disorder
are experiencing real physical sensations.
(D) tend to ignore the symptoms of their first attacks, while those with somatic symptom
disorder tend to seek immediate medical treatment following the first indication of pain.
16.16. In dissociative amnesia, the individual typically has no memory of
(A) any events.
(B) events prior to a trauma.
(C) selective events, particularly those involving trauma.
(D) events following a trauma, particularly those involving interpersonal issues.
17.17. When used in connection with mood disorders, "flight of ideas" means
(A) anxiety about airplane travel.
(B) rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once.
(C) limited imagination reflected in a slow way of speaking.
(D) repression of all creative ideas.
18.18. Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) differs from major depressive disorder because
people diagnosed with PDD have symptoms of depression that are ________.
(C) more severe
20.20. Current research into neurotransmitter systems has produced the "permissive" hypothesis,
which states that
(A) low levels of serotonin are sufficient to explain the etiology of mood disorders.
(B) the norepinephrine system regulates serotonin levels； if norepinephrine is low,
depression will occur.
(C) when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated
and contribute to mood irregularities.
(D) the absolute levels of neurotransmitters are more significant in mood regulation than
the overall balance of the various neurotransmitters.
21.21. Which of the following statements is TRUE about tricyclics?
(A) Tricyclics work within 24 hours after they are ingested.
(B) Weight loss is a side effect of taking a tricyclic.
(C) Tricyclics block the reuptake of acetylcholine.
(D) They can be accompanied by very unpleasant side effects.
23.23. Research using brain-imaging techniques has localized auditory hallucinations in the part
of the brain called _____________.
(A) Wernicke's area
(B) Broca's area
(C) the occipital lobe
(D) the limbic system
24.24. The negative schizophrenic symptom called avolition is defined as
(A) inability to initiate and persist in activities.
(B) inability to experience pleasure.
(C) lack of emotional response, blank facial expression.
(D) lack of speech content and/or slowed speech response.
25.25. Tardive dyskinesia, a condition that can occur in patients who take antipsychotic
(A) can result from short-term use.
(B) can result from low doses.
(C) occurs in less than 2% of patients.
(D) may often be irreversible.