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主題:Five Hypotheses of Language Acquisition


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(Brown, 2007) a. This hypothesis is built upon acquisition, not learning. b. People acquire language best by understanding input that is slightly beyond their current level or competence (i+1) c. The ability to speak fluently cannot be taught directly; rather, it emerges independently in time, after the acquirer has built up linguistic competece of understanding input. d. If there is a sufficient quantity of comprehensible input, i+1 will usually be provided automatically.     Five Hypotheses of Language Acquisition 1. Acquisition-Learning Distinction Older learners have two distinct and independent ways of developing competence in a foreign language. a. Langage acquisition is a subconscious process. There is implicit, informal, and natural learning. Acquisition is picking up a language. b. Language leaning is a conscious process. There is explicit, formal learning in an artificial environment. The acquisition learning process hypothesis claims that older learners also acquire and that the ability to acquire the language does not disappear at puberty. Older learners have also access to the same Natural Language Acquisition Device (LAD) that children have and use. Acquisition is a very powerful process in the older learner also. Error correction has little or no effect on subconscious acquisition but it is useful for conscious learning. 2. Natural Order Hypothesis People from different countries learn English. They are different from each other. They learn the same rules and besides differences there are striking similarities. 3. The Monitor Hypothesis Acquisition initiates our utterances and, fluency is possible through acquisition. Conscious learning has only one function to act as monitor or editor. Conscious knowledge is used only to make changes in the form of the utterance after or before it has been produced. The monitor hypotheses claims that formal rules or conscious learning play a very limited role in 2nd language performance. Conscious rules are possible to be used only when 3 conditions are there: a. Time b. Focus on the form c. A knowledge about the rule Krashen Butter found out that ESL student write composition with the opportunity of time to go over what they have written and with the possibility of focusing on the form. The effect of monitor use was shockingly little. Individual variation in monitor use in using the conscious knowledge about language: a. Monitor overusers: they speak hesitantly without fluency b. Monitor underusers: they speak fluently but with many errors c. Optimal monitor users: they check their utterances appropriate and what it does not interfere with the communication. They speak fluently and accurately. 4. Input Hypothesis: If an acquirer is at level 4 how can he progress to stage level 5? Input hypothesis claims that in order to achieve this progress the acquirer should understand the input that contains it. ‘Understand’ means the acquirer focuses on meaning not on the form. We acquire only when we understand language that contains sturcture which is a little beyond our present level of language proficiency. Input hypothesis may be stated as follows: • Input hypothesis relates acquisition not meaning to provide comprehensible input for the student. • Speaking fluency cannot be taught directly. Speaking is to provide comprehensible input. When the acquirer feels himself ready speech will occur. The state of readiness will be at different times for different individuals. Early speech is naturally full of errors. Accuracy develops overtime as the acquirer hears and understands more input. Evidences supporting the hypothesis: 1. First language acquisition (caretaker speech, babytalk) a. It is syntacticaly simpler than adult-adult speech. It is roughly tuned to..

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關鍵字:Input HypothesisNatural Order HypothesisThe Affective-Filter HypothesisThe Monitor HypothesisAcquisition-Learning DistinctionLanguage AcquisitionAcquisitionFive Hypotheses of Language Acquisition