45 Investors and the public are demanding increasingly detailed information on nonfinancial metrics that define sustainability.
(A) In terms of financial metrics, investors and the public are never satisfied with the sustainable business.
(B) Detailed information on monetary metrics plays a more important role for sustainable investors and the public.
(C) Other than financial reports, investors and the public are asking for more details about factors indicating sustainability.
(D) Investors and the public keep inquiring detailed information on nonfinancial metrics to sustain the validity of the contract.
25. Recycling is one of many effective ways to care for our environment. However, _______________ Recycling not only mitigates the impact on the environment but
also reduces the wasting of our Earth’s limited resources. Everyone can contribute to recycling. An effective way to recycle is to thoroughly sort out daily household
(A)a lot of people emphasize the important of recycling to the environment.
(B)there are few people but understand the important of recycling to the
(C)both the government and the public should know the importance of recycling
to the environment.
(D)a lot of people still do not realize the importance of recycling to the
1.Vocabulary: Choose the best word or phrase for each sentence.
There has been no rain for several months, and the farmers are _____ in need of water.
Although there have been reformulations of the different components of knowledge that underlie Canale and Swain’s
influential model of communicative competence, the model in its slightly modified form by Canale (1983) still forms the
conventional framework for curriculum design and classroom practice associated with communicative language teaching in an
educational context. The notion of communicative competence described in the model entails four competencies, which are
commonly referred to as grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence, and strategic
competence. The first and foremost is grammatical or formal competence, which refers to the Chomskyan concept of linguistic
competence; it is the native speaker’s knowledge of the syntactic, lexical, morphological, and phonological features of the
language, as well as the capacity to manipulate these features to produce well-formed words and sentences. It provides the
linguistic basis for the rules of usage which normally result in accuracy in performance. The second, sociolinguistic
competence, deals with the social rules of language use, which involve an understanding of the social context in which
language is used. Such factors as the role of the participants in a given interaction, their social status, the information they
share, and the function of the interaction are given importance. Social context here refers to the culture-specific context
embedding the norms, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of a culture. Appropriate use of the language requires attention to
such constructs. Next comes discourse competence, which is the ability to deal with the extended use of language in context.
This is ordinarily achieved through the connection of a series of sentences or utterances to form a meaningful whole. These
connections are often quite implicit: ideas are linked to each other based on general knowledge of the world as well as
familiarity with a particular context. Where these conceptual and experiential bonds are weak or inadequate, the meanings
inferred from them are likely to be erroneous. Studies in contrastive rhetoric provide ample evidence for culture-specific
thought patterns and organizational differences that lead to serious misunderstandings. In such cases, formal cohesive devices
normally used to establish overall coherence among propositions fall short of achieving adequate interpretation. The last
component in the model is strategic competence, which is defined as the ability to cope in an authentic communicative situation
and to keep the communicative channel open. This requires the knowledge of communication strategies that one can use to
compensate for imperfect knowledge of rules, or for factors such as fatigue, inattention, and distraction which limit the
application of such rules.
【題組】45. Which of the following statements is true of four competencies of communicative competence according to the reading?
(A)Sociolinguistic competence refers to appropriate language use with an emphasis on the culture-specific norms, values,
beliefs, and behavior patterns.
(B)Discourse competence is generally achieved through the explicit linguistic rules and the meanings are inferred within a
(C)Organizational competence is defined as an understanding of the social context and social rules for appropriate language
(D)Linguistic competence, organizational competence, discourse competence, and strategic competence are the four
competencies commonly entailed in communicative competence.