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Knowing the origin of a word can give you a clearer understanding of the word. For example, the word sabotage means “the intentional destruction of materials, machines, or some process of production.” The meaning of the term becomes clear when you learn that sabotage comes from the French word sabat, meaning “wooden shoe,” and it was coined during the French Revolution when workers sabotaged French factories by throwing their shoes into the machinery. Looking up the origin of a word also reminds you that language is constantly changing, with old words gaining new meanings and new words being born. The word chauvinist, for example, was never used before 1815. It was coined as a result of the fanatic loyalty of a French soldier, Nicolas Chauvin, to Napoleon. Thus, chauvinism has come to mean blind attachment to something, such as one’s beliefs or, as it is commonly used today, one’s sex. The word boycott is another word that has a relatively recent origin, and it also originated from a person’s name. In the 1880s, during the struggle between British landowners and Irish tenant farmers, a man by the name of Captain Charles Boycott was hired to collect the rent from the farmers on a large estate in County Mayo. The impoverished Irish peasants, however, got together and decided to ignore Captain Boycott by refusing to pay and expelling him.
【Group】45 According to this passage, which of the following statements about word origin is true?
(A)The word “chauvinism” originated from a French soldier’s blind attachment to his sex.
(B)Captain Boycott was the one who led the protest of the Irish tenant farmers. 
(C)From the origin of words, we can see that new words are coined constantly.
(D)Many French words originated from English names.

IV. Reading Comprehension. (Questions 41-60) 30 points There are four passages in this section. For each passage there are 5 multiple choice questions. Choose the best answer to each question. 【單選題】每題 1.5 分,共 20 題,答錯 1 題倒扣 0.375 分,倒扣至本大題零分為止,未作答,不給分亦不扣分。 Passage #1 (Questions 41-45) 

On the Internet, everybody is a millenarian. Internet journalism, according to those who produce manifestos on its behalf, represents a world-historical development--not so much because of the expressive power of the new medium as because of its accessibility to producers and consumers. That permits it to break the long-standing choke hold on public information and discussion that the traditional media--usually known, then this argument is made, as “gatekeepers” or “the priesthood”--have supposedly been able to maintain up to now. According to Glenn Reynolds, a University law professor, who operates one of the leading blogs, Instapundit, millions of Americans who were once in awe of the punditocracy now realize that anyone can do this stuff--and that many unknowns can do it better than the lords of the profession. The rhetoric about Internet journalism produced by Reynolds and many others is plausible only because it conflates several distinct categories of material that are widely available online and didn’t use to be. One is pure opinion, especially political opinion, which the Internet has made infinitely easy to purvey. Another is information originally published in other media—which one can find instantly on search and aggregation sites. (Source: The New Yorker Aug. 7 & 14, 2006, p.44)

【Group】45. According to this passage, which of the following can best describe the central idea of this passage?
(A) Internet has greatly democratized journalism.
(B) Internet has created quite a few millionaires.
(C) Internet has provisioned a variety of opinions.
(D) Internet has enabled easy search for information.
(E) Internet has become a trendy profession today.

   Delisandra Beltran, of New York City, used to feel scared in her own home. Her neighborhood was so dangerous, she says, "that I was throwing myself on the floor with my son all the time because of the bullets flying through my window." Mae Willie Turner, 79, of Taylor, Texas, was also scared. Drug dealers had brought so much crime to her small hometown that she was afraid to sit on her own front porch.
   But now all that has changed. Beltran says, "I haven't seen a bullet hole in a year." Turner boasts, "I can sit on my porch anytime." These women are not the only Americans feeling a little safer these days. In many cities, the rate of crime is going down. In 1994, violent crime dropped 8% in the nine largest U.S. cities. During the first half of 1995, serious crime dropped an additional 2%. Murder was down 12%.
   Why is crime down? One reason may be the smart new way some police departments work. In cities such as New Orleans, Philadelphia, New York and Chicago, police don't just cruise around in patrol cars watching for crimes. Officers are on the streets, talking with the folks they protect. The new system is called community policing. Officers know the good citizens and the troublemakers, which makes it easier to solve crimes. "I felt better almost as soon as the police moved in," says Brenda Holmes of New Orleans. "They've given us our lives back."
   Police officers are taking on new roles. "We do neighborhood cleanups, counseling...you name it," says Djuana Adams, a police officer in New Orleans. "We help the children with their homework, and they show up for treats when they get good grades." Community policing is not the only reason experts give for the drop in crime. More criminals than ever are in prison, where they can't get into trouble. Also, fewer people use crack, the drug blamed for the rise in violent crime that started in 1984.
   Some experts think the crime rate will bounce back up in a few years. There will be more males ages 15 to 29, the group that commits most crimes. Plus, crime among kids has gone up, not down. But if crime does rise again, police departments across the country are better prepared than ever to fight it.

【Group】45 According to this passage, which of the following tasks is NOT mentioned as a part of community policing?
(A) Taking care of the homeless.
(B) Keeping the neighborhood clean.
(C) Chatting with the people they protect.
(D) Cruising around in patrol cars.

From its inception, children’s literature had in it an unusual educational function, which is to show horror and dire consequences in order to lead one into a certain pattern. Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella Story from China, for instance, relied on brutal intimidation to frighten children into docile behavior. In the story, Yeh-Shen was disfavored by her stepmother, and had to take care of all the house chores. At the village where Yeh-Shen lived, a festival would be held in springtime. All young men and women would like to attend the festival since it provided them with a chance to meet other youths, and possibly further spouse. As the festival was approaching, Yeh-Shen longed to go. But, her stepmother forbade her to leave the house. Desperately, she asked help from the magic bones that her fish friend left to her before. Immediately, she was transformed into a beauty. That night at the festival, everyone marveled at her prettiness. However, in order to hide from her stepmother and stepsister, she ran away from the party. She therefore lost one of her slippers. She had to find her shoe and return to the bones; otherwise, the bones would no longer have any responses to her. When she went to take her lost shoe back, her beauty attracted the prince. Eventually, the prince asked for her hand in marriage. As she was rewarded for her good heart, hard work, and inner beauty, her stepmother and stepsister were crushed to death in a shower of stones because of their wickedness and malice. In short, through a combined representation of a good girl and a wicked stepsister, this tale promotes a pedagogy of fear and terror through images of death and disaster to pave the path for children to move into their expected roles.
【Group】45. According to this passage, which is the major moral of this tale, Yeh-Shen?
(A) When you encounter problems, don’t be afraid to ask help.
(B) Do your best to attend the party, and then chances will arrive.
(C) The prince is always the best choice for one’s future spouse.
(D) The good will be rewarded, and the wicked will receive punishment.

To toot, to cut the cheese, or to pass gas. These are all funny ways to talk about something that everyone does: Farts! A normal person passes about half a liter of gas a day. That equals about 14 farts per day. Then where do farts come from? There are several sources of fart gas. We get fart gas from the air we swallow. Gas also goes into our intestines from our blood. In addition, gas is also produced from chemical reactions and bacteria living in our intestines. Nervous people usually have more gas. This is because they swallow more air. Besides, food goes through their digestive systems faster. This means oxygen cannot be absorbed from the food in time. It turns into fart gas. People’s diet affects the stinkiness of farts. The smell has to do with the sulphur in foods such as eggs, meat, and cauliflower. Beans cause a lot of farts, but these farts aren’t usually really stinky. Beans are not high in sulphur, but the sugar in them produces gas in the intestines. Finally, people wonder, “Where do farts go when you hold them in?” Well, these farts will not poison you. However, you may get a bad stomachache from the pressure. Farts you hold in are neither released nor absorbed. They will come out sooner or later.
【Group】49 According to this passage, which of the following foods is likely to cause the stinkiest farts?
高普考/三四等/高員級◆英文- 2010 - 099年 警察鐵路人員四等考試、員級英文#5949