49. The term “multitasking” originallyreferred to a computer’s ability to carry out severaltasks at one time. For manypeople, multitasking has become a way of life and even a key to success. In fact, someexcellentmentalaerobicexercises (人脑训练) involveengaging the brain in two or morechallengingactivities at a time. Althoughchecking e-mailwhiletalking on a phone and reading the newspaper may be secondnature for somepeople, manytimesmultitasking can make us lessproductive, ratherthanmore. And studiesshowthat too muchmultitasking can lead to increasedstress, anxiety and memoryloss.
In order to multitask, the brainuses an areaknown as the prefrontalcortex (前额叶脑皮层). Brianscans of volunteersperformingmultipletaskstogethershowthat as theyshiftfromtask to task, thisfrontpart of the brainactuallytakes a moment of restbetweentasks. You may haveexperienced a prefrontalcortex “moment of rest” yourself if you’ve everdialed (拨电话) and the answering, yourmindshifted to antherthought or task, and thenlookthat “moment” to comeback. Research has alsoshownthat for manyvolunteers. Job efficiency (效率) declineswhilemultitasking as compared to whentheyperformonly one task at a time.
Multitasking is easiestwhen at least one of the tasks in habitual, or requireslittlethought. Mostpeople don’t find it difficult to eat and read the newspaper at the sametime. However, when two or moreattention –requiringtasks are attempted at one time, peoplesometimesmakemistakes.
We often don’t rememberthings as wellwhen we’re trying to manageseveraldetails at the sametime. Withoutmentalfocus, we may not pay enoughattention to new informationcoming in, so it nevermakes it into our memorystores. That is one of the mainreasons we forgetpeople’s names---evensometimesrightaftertheyhaveintroducedthemselves. Multitasking can alsoaffect our relationships. If someonecheckstheir e-mailwhile on the phonewith a friend, they may** off as absent-minded or disinterested. It can alsocausethatperson to miss * overlook key informationbeingpassed on to them.
Why are somementalaerobicexercisesdesigned to engagepeople in multitasking?
(A) To makethemmoreproductive. (B) To reducetheirstress and anxiety.
(C) To developtheircommunicationskills. (D) To helpthemperformdailytasksmoreeasily.
For manyyears in the UnitedStates, mostundergraduatestudentswere 18 to 22 years old. Theyattendedcollegefull-time, lived in a dormitory on campus, and expectedmany “extras” fromtheircolleges, not justclasses. But thingsbegan to change in the 1970s and are verydifferent now. Today, these “traditional” students are lessthan one-quarter of all collegestudents. Thesedays the nontraditionalstudents are the majority; they are differentfromtraditionalundergraduates in severalways. They are older. Manyattendcollegepart-timebecausetheyhavefamilies and jobs. Mostlive off campus, not in dorms. Thesenontraditionalstudents don’t want the extrasthatcollegesusuallyoffer. Theyaren’t interested in the sports, entertainment, religiousgroups, and museumsthat are part of most US colleges. Theywantmainlygood-qualityclasses, day or night, at a low cost. Theyalsohope for easyparking, access to informationtechnology, and politeservice. Bothtime and money are important to them.
Psychologicaltestsreflectdifferentlearningstyles in this new studentpopulation, too. Eachperson has a certainlearningstyle, and about 60 percent of the new studentsthesedaysprefer the sensingstyle. Thismeansthatthey are verypractical. Theyprefer a practice-to-theorymethod of learning, which is experiencefirst and ideasafterthat. Theyoftenhavedifficultywithreading and writing and are unsure of themselves. Most of thesestudents are attendingcollegebecausetheywant to have a good job and make a lot of money. 【題組】43 What is the nontraditionalstudents’ attitudetowardscollegelife?
(A)They are indifferent to class activities. (B)Theycareabouttime and moneyspent in college.
(C)They are moreoptimisticthantraditionalstudents. (D)Theyprefer to learntheoriesfirst.