49. The term “multitasking” originally referred to a computer’s ability to carry out several tasks at one time. For many people, multitasking has become a way of life and even a key to success. In fact, some excellent mental aerobic exercises (人脑训练) involve engaging the brain in two or more challenging activities at a time. Although checking e-mail while talking on a phone and reading the newspaper may be second nature for some people, many times multitasking can make us less productive, rather than more. And studies show that too much multitasking can lead to increased stress, anxiety and memory loss.
In order to multitask, the brain uses an area known as the prefrontal cortex (前额叶脑皮层). Brian scans of volunteers performing multiple tasks together show that as they shift from task to task, this front part of the brain actually takes a moment of rest between tasks. You may have experienced a prefrontal cortex “moment of rest” yourself if you’ve ever dialed (拨电话) and the answering, your mind shifted to anther thought or task, and then look that “moment” to come back. Research has also shown that for many volunteers. Job efficiency (效率) declines while multitasking as compared to when they perform only one task at a time.
Multitasking is easiest when at least one of the tasks in habitual, or requires little thought. Most people don’t find it difficult to eat and read the newspaper at the same time. However, when two or more attention –requiring tasks are attempted at one time, people sometimes make mistakes.
We often don’t remember things as well when we’re trying to manage several details at the same time. Without mental focus, we may not pay enough attention to new information coming in, so it never makes it into our memory stores. That is one of the main reasons we forget people’s names---even sometimes right after they have introduced themselves. Multitasking can also affect our relationships. If someone checks their e-mail while on the phone with a friend, they may** off as absent-minded or disinterested. It can also cause that person to miss * overlook key information being passed on to them.
Why are some mental aerobic exercises designed to engage people in multitasking?
(A) To make them more productive. (B) To reduce their stress and anxiety.
(C) To develop their communication skills. (D) To help them perform daily tasks more easily.
For many years in the United States, most undergraduate students were 18 to 22 years old. They attended college full-time, lived in a dormitory on campus, and expected many “extras” from their colleges, not just classes. But things began to change in the 1970s and are very different now. Today, these “traditional” students are less than one-quarter of all college students. These days the nontraditional students are the majority; they are different from traditional undergraduates in several ways. They are older. Many attend college part-time because they have families and jobs. Most live off campus, not in dorms. These nontraditional students don’t want the extras that colleges usually offer. They aren’t interested in the sports, entertainment, religious groups, and museums that are part of most US colleges. They want mainly good-quality classes, day or night, at a low cost. They also hope for easy parking, access to information technology, and polite service. Both time and money are important to them.
Psychological tests reflect different learning styles in this new student population, too. Each person has a certain learning style, and about 60 percent of the new students these days prefer the sensing style. This means that they are very practical. They prefer a practice-to-theory method of learning, which is experience first and ideas after that. They often have difficulty with reading and writing and are unsure of themselves. Most of these students are attending college because they want to have a good job and make a lot of money. 【題組】43 What is the nontraditional students’ attitude towards college life?
(A)They are indifferent to class activities. (B)They care about time and money spent in college.
(C)They are more optimistic than traditional students. (D)They prefer to learn theories first.