Directions: In thissection, you willhear 8 shortconversations and 2 longconversations. At the end of eachconversation, one or morequestionswill be askedaboutwhat was said. Both the conversation and the questionswill be spokenonlyonce. Aftereachquestiontherewill be a pause. During the pause, you mustread the fourchoicesmarked [A], [B], (C) and (D), and decidewhich is the bestanswer. Thenmark the correspondingletter on AnswerSheet 2 with a singlelinethrough the centre. 【題組】18. (A)To protect her fromgettingscratches.
(B)To helprelieve her of the pain.
(C) To preventmosquitobites.
(D) To avoidgetting sun burnt.
請依下文回答第 28 題至第 32 題
During the mid-1900s, scientistsbegan to examinebiologicalcycles in severaldifferentorganisms. By the early
1960s, theyshowedthatdaily, or circadian, rhythms—“circa” meaningaround and “dia” day—are generatedinternally and synchronized to the 24-hour day. How are thesecyclesgenerated and altered?
In mammals, includinghumans, a biologicalclockresides in a region of the brain’s hypothalamus, a quarter-sizedstructurethatregulateshormonelevels and plays a role in emotions. In someinsects and snails the clocks are usuallylocated in the retina of the eye. In birds the clocks can also be found in a brainregioncalled the pinealgland or in the
The clocks are almostalwayslinked to someform of light-sensingcellcalled a photoreceptor. Thistype of cellresponds to sunlight in waysthathelpsynchronize the clockwith the 24-hour day.
Scientistshavelearnedthatexposure to light at certaintimes in the internalcycle can reset the clock in animals.
In mammals, lightturns on importantgenes and affectssleeppatterns, alertness, and bodytemperature. In nature, thislightsensitivityhelpsorganismssynchronizetheirclockwithin the cycle of day and night.
Researchershavefoundthatexposure to strongartificiallight at certaintimes can reset the clock in waysthatrelieveinsomnia, jet lag, and mentaldisorders. Light at the wrongtime of the internalcycle, however, mightcontribute
to or intensifytheseconditions. 【題組】28 According to the passage, in which of the followingorgans can a mosquito’s biologicalclock be found?
(A) Brain (B) Eye (C) Nose (D) Tongue
9. _______________ In thismosquito-infestedcountry, an estimated 450,000 familieslive in
high-riskmalariaprevalentareas. Luckily, there is a simple and costeffective way to
protectchildrenfrommalaria. One insecticidetreated bed net costs US$6 only and lasts up
to fiveyears. Sleepingunder it can reduceoverallchildmortality by 20 percent. The
public’s support for thisUnitedNationsInternationalChildren’s EmergencyFund
(UNICEF) project can save a lot of children’s lives.
(A) The UnitedNationsInternationalChildren’s EmergencyFund is workingwith the
government of Myanmar to provideeffective and affordablemalariaprevention to familieswithsmallchildren.
(B) Malaria is bothpreventable and treatable, and effectivepreventivemeasures as well as
curativetoolshavebeendeveloped by non-governmentalorganizations.
(C) To reducevulnerability to malaria and to combat the spread of malaria, the UnitedNationsInternationalChildren’s EmergencyFunddistributedinsecticidetreated bed netsexclusively to Myanmarhouseholds.
(D) According to the UnitedNationsInternationalChildren’s EmergencyFund, approximatelyhalf of malariadeaths in the SoutheastAsiaregionoccur in Myanmar’s malariaprevalenttownships.