第 17 題至第 20 題為篇章結構，各題請依文意，從四個選項中選出最合適者，各題答案內容不重複
The assumption that reading takes place in imaginative isolation from the world is deeply embedded in everydayusage as well as in theoretical discussion. To begin with, reading feels like an intensely personal, private commitment.For instance, it is commonplace to hear the pleasure of reading associated with varieties of escape from the pressure ofhaving to relate to others in social situations. Yet, the flip side of this is the complaint one often hears, primarilyfrom students, that 17 These feelings about the solitariness of reading are so pervasive that one might inferthat 18 Such stereotypes persist, in part, because we assume that reading begins and ends as a solitary
experience, that is, one that presupposes a single reader encountering a single text.
The perception that reading is an individual act gains considerable strength from the presence of three “enduringtraditions” in Western culture, traditions that constitute a formidable barrier to change. In the first place, assumptionsabout reading are conditioned by assumptions about writing, and romantic notions about writers as mysteriouslyinspired from within continue for many to be definitive. A second tradition grows out of the work of professionalliterary critics. For decades, this work has fostered the notion that 19
The impact of these images of writers and readers is intensified by a third tradition contributing to the impressionthat reading must be a private, asocial experience. In capitalistic, patriarchal societies such as ours, 20 We find itdifficult to imagine reading as a shared enterprise unless this involves individuals gathering to “consume”interpretations provided by others (via lecture or presentation) or to “exchange” ideas with one another. This way ofthinking makes the “economic marketplace” an apt (though undesirable) metaphor for what has traditionally beenunderstood by the term “class discussion.”