With more and more international business deals, people have more chances to work abroad, to get along with foreigners, and to get broader knowledge about other countries. Over the last century, there have been numerous transnational marriages. This means that the couple come from two different countries, breaking through cultural differences to develop their love and then get married. For those couples living in two different countries, it is not easy to get in touch and express their feelings for each other every day because of high international call charges. But with the rapid development of communication software through some websites, along with the convenience of modern transportation, it is easier to make friends and get in touch with people in other countries. Therefore, on average, the total number of the transnational marriages is increasing every year.
However, with the passage of time, some couples may not get enough satisfaction from communicating through machines, such as computers or cell phones, and think it difficult to share the ups and downs in their lives with each other. Even repeatedly taking a plane to get together is a waste of time and money. If they lose the love and trust of their marriages, the cold war between them may soon break out and they may even break up in the end.
Some masters and experts forecast that the more time people spend on communicating with others through machines, the more distant their minds will be. It sounds crazy, but it seems to be true.
【Group】48. According to this article, which is NOT mentioned about the reasons for the increase of transnational marriages?
(A) The charges of international calls are high.
(D) More chances for people to wrok abroad or to get along with the foreigners.
(C) More and more international business deals.
(D) The convenience of modern transportation and the communication software on the Internet.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Global warming is causing more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economic losses each year, according to a report by the Global Humanitarian Forum, an organization led by Annan, the former United Nations secretary general.
The report, to be released Friday, analyzed data and existing studies of health, disaster, population and economic trends. It found that human-influenced climate change was raising the global death rates from illnesses including malnutrition (营养不良)and heat-related health problems.
But even before its release, the report drew criticism from some experts on climate and risk, who questioned its methods and conclusions.
Along with the deaths, the report said that the lives of 325 million people, primarily in poor countries, were being seriously affected by climate change. It projected that the number would double by
Roger Pielke Jr., a political scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who studies disaster trends, said the Forum's report was "a methodological embarrassment" because there was no way to distinguish deaths or economic losses related to human-driven global warming amid the much larger losses resulting from the growth in populations and economic development in vulnerable (易受伤害的) regions. Dr. Pielke said that “climate change is an important problem requiring our utmost attention.” But the report, he said, "will harm the cause for action on both climate change and disasters because it is so deeply flawed (有瑕疵的)."
However, Soren Andreasen, a social scientist at Dalberg Global Development Partners who supervised the writing of the report, defended it, saying that it was clear that the numbers were rough estimates. He said the report was aimed at world leaders, who will meet in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new international climate treaty.
In a press release describing the report, Mr. Annan stressed the need for the negotiations to focus on increasing the flow of money from rich to poor regions to help reduce their vulnerability to climate hazards while still curbing the emissions of the heat-trapping gases. More than 90% of the human and economic losses from climate change are occurring in poor countries, according to the report. 【Group】65. What is Soren Andreasen's view of the report?
(A) Its conclusions are based on carefully collected data.
(B) It is vulnerable to criticism if the statistics are closely examined.
(C) It will give rise to heated discussions at the Copenhagen conference.
(D) Its rough estimates are meant to draw the attention of world leaders.
Ask anyone why there is an obesity epidemic and they will tell you that it’s al down to eating too much and burning too few calories. That explanation appeals to common sense and has dominated efforts to get to the root of the obesity epidemic and reverse it/ yet obesity researchers are increasingly dissatisfied with it. Many now believe that something else must have changed in our environment to precipitate(促成) such dramatic rises in obesity over the past 40 years or so. Nobody is saying that the “big two” – reduced physical activity and increased availability of food – are not important contributors to the epidemic, but they cannot explain it all.
Earlier this year a review paper by 20 obesity experts set out the 7 most plausible alternative explanations for the epidemic. Here they are.there may be a link. People who sleep less than 7 hours a night tend to have a higher body mass index than people who sleep more, according to data gathered by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Similarly, the US Nurses’ Health Study, which tracked 68,000 women for 16 years, found that those who slept an average of 5 hours a night gained more weight during the study period than women who slept 6 hours, who in turn gained more than whose who slept 7.
It’s well known that obesity impairs sleep, so perhaps people get fat first and sleep less afterwards. But the nurses’ study suggests that it can work in the other direction too: sleep loss may precipitate weight gain.
Although getting figures is difficult, it appears that we really are sleeping less. In 1960 people in the US slept an average of 8.5 hours per night. A 2002 poll by the National Sleep Foundation suggests that the average has fallen to under 7 hours, and the decline is mirrored by the increase in obesity.
We humans, like all warm-blooded animals, can keep our core body temperatures pretty much constant regardless of what’s going on in the world around us. We do this by altering our metabolic(新陈代新的) rate, shivering or sweating. Keeping warm and staying cool take energy unless we are in the “thermo-neutral zone”, which is increasingly where we choose to live and work.
There is no denying that ambient temperatures(环境温度) have changed in the past few decades. Between 1970 and 2000, the average British home warmed from a chilly 13C to 18C. In the US, the changes have been at the other end of the thermometer as the proportion of homes with air conditionings rose from 23% to 47% between 1978 and 1997. In the southern states – where obesity rates tend to be highest – the number of houses with air conditioning has shot up to 71% from 37% in 1978.
Could air conditioning in summer and heating in winter really make a difference to our weight?
Sadly，there is some evidence that it does-at least with regard to heating. Studies show that in comfortable temperatures we use less energy.
Bad news: smokers really do tend to be thinner than the rest of us,and quitting really does pack on the pounds, though no one isn sure why. It probably has something to do with the fact that nicotine is an appetite suppressant and appears to up your metabolic rate.
Katherine Flegal and colleagres at the US National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville,Maryland, have calculated that people kicking the habit have been respousible for a small but significant portion of the US epidemic of fatness.From data collected aroud 1991 by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,they worked out that people who had quit in the previous decade were much more likely to be overweight than smokers and people who had never smoked .Among men, for example, nearly half of quitters were overweight compared with 37% of non-smokers and only 28%of smokers.
Yours chances of becoming fat may be set,at least in part,before you were even born.children of boese mothers are much more likely to become obest themselves later in life.Offspring of mice fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy are much more likely to become fat than the offspring of identical mice fed a normal diet. Intriguingly,the effect persists for two or three generations.Grand-children of mice fed a high-fat diet grow up fat even if their own mother is fed normally-so you fate may have been sealed even before you were conceived.
A little older…
Some groups of people just happen to be fatter than others.surveys carried out by the US national center for health statisties found that adults aged 40 to 79 were around three times as likely to be obese as younger people.non-white females also tend to fall at the fatter end of the spectreum:Mexican-american women are 30% more likely than white women to be obsess,and black women have twice the risk.
In the US,these groups account for an increasing percentage of the population.between 1970 and 2000 the US population aged 35 to 44 grew by 43%.the proportion of Hispanic-americans also grew,from under 5% to 12.5% of the population,while the proportion of black Americans increased from 11% to 12.3%.these changes may account in part for the increased prevalence of obesity.
Mothers around the world are getting older.in the UK,the mean age for aving a frist child is 27.3,compared with 23.7 in 1970 .mean age at frist birth in the US has also increased, rising from 21.4 in 1970 to 24.9 in 2000.
This would be neither here nor there if it were’t for the observation that having an older mother seems to be an independent risk factor for obesity. Results from the US national heart,lung and blood institute’s study found that the odds of a child being obese increase 14% for every five extra years of their mother’s age , though why this should be so is not entirely clear.
Michael Symonds at the university of Nottingham,UK,found that first-bron children have more fat than younger ones. As family size decreases, firstbrons account for a greather share of the population. In 1964, british women gave birth to an average of 2.95 children;by 2005 that figure had fallen to 1.79. in the US in 1976, 9.6% of woman in their 40s had only one chile;in 2004 it was 17.4%. this combination of older mothers and more single children could be contributing to the obesity epidemic.
.Like marrying like
Just as people pair off according to looks, so they do for size. Lean people are more likely to marry lean an d fat more likely to marry fat. On its own, like marrying like cannot account for any increase in obesity. But combined with others- particularly the fact that obesity is partly genetic, and that heavier people have more children-it amplifies the increase form other causes.Not enough sleep
It is widely believed that sleep is for the brain, not the body. Could a shortage of shut-eye also be helping to make us fat?
Several large-scale studies suggest
【Group】18. (A)The building of the dam needs a large budget
(B)the proposed site is near the residential area
(C)the local people fel insecure about the dam
(D)the dam poses a threat to the local environment
Question19 to21 are based on the conversation you have just heard