Withmore and moreinternationalbusinessdeals, peoplehavemorechances to workabroad, to get alongwithforeigners, and to get broaderknowledgeaboutothercountries. Over the lastcentury, therehavebeennumeroustransnationalmarriages. Thismeansthat the couplecomefrom two differentcountries, breakingthroughculturaldifferences to developtheirlove and then get married. For thosecouplesliving in two differentcountries, it is not easy to get in touch and expresstheirfeelings for eachotherevery day because of highinternationalcallcharges. But with the rapiddevelopment of communicationsoftwarethroughsomewebsites, alongwith the convenience of moderntransportation, it is easier to makefriends and get in touchwithpeople in othercountries. Therefore, on average, the totalnumber of the transnationalmarriages is increasingeveryyear.
However, with the passage of time, somecouples may not get enoughsatisfactionfromcommunicatingthroughmachines, such as computers or cellphones, and think it difficult to share the ups and downs in theirliveswitheachother. Evenrepeatedlytaking a plane to get together is a waste of time and money. If theylose the love and trust of theirmarriages, the cold war betweenthem may soonbreak out and they may evenbreak up in the end.
Somemasters and expertsforecastthat the moretimepeoplespend on communicatingwithothersthroughmachines, the moredistanttheirmindswill be. It soundscrazy, but it seems to be true.
【題組】48. According to thisarticle, which is NOT mentionedabout the reasons for the increase of transnationalmarriages?
(A) The charges of internationalcalls are high.
(D) Morechances for people to wrokabroad or to get alongwith the foreigners.
(C) More and moreinternationalbusinessdeals.
(D) The convenience of moderntransportation and the communicationsoftware on the Internet.
Vivien Lai 國三下 (2016/12/04 18:13) 題目是問哪一項是文章中沒有提到的跨國婚姻比率提升的原因
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the followingpassage.
Globalwarming is causingmorethan 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economiclosseseachyear, according to a report by the GlobalHumanitarianForum, an organization led by Annan, the formerUnitedNationssecretarygeneral.
The report, to be releasedFriday, analyzeddata and existingstudies of health, disaster, population and economictrends. It foundthathuman-influencedclimatechange was raising the globaldeathratesfromillnessesincludingmalnutrition (营养不良)and heat-relatedhealthproblems.
But evenbefore its release, the reportdrewcriticismfromsomeexperts on climate and risk, who questioned its methods and conclusions.
Alongwith the deaths, the reportsaidthat the lives of 325 millionpeople, primarily in poorcountries, werebeingseriouslyaffected by climatechange. It projectedthat the numberwoulddouble by
RogerPielke Jr., a politicalscientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who studiesdisastertrends, said the Forum's report was "a methodologicalembarrassment" becausethere was no way to distinguishdeaths or economiclossesrelated to human-drivenglobalwarmingamid the muchlargerlossesresultingfrom the growth in populations and economicdevelopment in vulnerable (易受伤害的) regions. Dr. Pielkesaidthat “climatechange is an importantproblemrequiring our utmostattention.” But the report, he said, "willharm the cause for action on bothclimatechange and disastersbecause it is so deeplyflawed (有瑕疵的)."
However, SorenAndreasen, a socialscientist at DalbergGlobalDevelopmentPartners who supervised the writing of the report, defended it, sayingthat it was clearthat the numberswereroughestimates. He said the report was aimed at worldleaders, who willmeet in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new internationalclimatetreaty.
In a pressreleasedescribing the report, Mr. Annanstressed the need for the negotiations to focus on increasing the flow of moneyfromrich to poorregions to helpreducetheirvulnerability to climatehazardswhilestillcurbing the emissions of the heat-trappinggases. Morethan 90% of the human and economiclossesfromclimatechange are occurring in poorcountries, according to the report. 【題組】65. What is SorenAndreasen's view of the report?
(A) Its conclusions are based on carefullycollecteddata.
(B) It is vulnerable to criticism if the statistics are closelyexamined.
(C) It willgiverise to heateddiscussions at the Copenhagenconference.
(D) Its roughestimates are meant to draw the attention of worldleaders.
Ask anyone why there is an obesityepidemic and theywilltell you that it’s al down to eating too much and burning too few calories. Thatexplanationappeals to commonsense and has dominatedefforts to get to the root of the obesityepidemic and reverse it/ yet obesityresearchers are increasinglydissatisfiedwith it. Many now believethatsomethingelsemusthavechanged in our environment to precipitate(促成) suchdramaticrises in obesityover the past 40 years or so. Nobody is sayingthat the “big two” – reducedphysicalactivity and increasedavailability of food – are not importantcontributors to the epidemic, but theycannotexplain it all.
Earlierthisyear a reviewpaper by 20 obesityexperts set out the 7 mostplausiblealternativeexplanations for the epidemic. Herethey are.there may be a link. People who sleeplessthan 7 hours a nighttend to have a higherbodymassindexthanpeople who sleepmore, according to datagathered by the US NationalHealth and NutritionExaminationSurvey. Similarly, the US Nurses’ HealthStudy, whichtracked 68,000 women for 16 years, foundthatthose who slept an average of 5 hours a nightgainedmoreweightduring the studyperiodthanwomen who slept 6 hours, who in turngainedmorethanwhose who slept 7.
It’s wellknownthatobesityimpairssleep, so perhapspeople get fat first and sleeplessafterwards. But the nurses’ studysuggeststhat it can work in the otherdirection too: sleeploss may precipitateweightgain.
Althoughgettingfigures is difficult, it appearsthat we really are sleepingless. In 1960 people in the US slept an average of 8.5 hours per night. A 2002 poll by the NationalSleepFoundationsuggeststhat the average has fallen to under 7 hours, and the decline is mirrored by the increase in obesity.
We humans, like all warm-bloodedanimals, can keep our corebodytemperaturesprettymuchconstantregardless of what’s going on in the worldaround us. We do this by altering our metabolic(新陈代新的) rate, shivering or sweating. Keepingwarm and stayingcooltakeenergyunless we are in the “thermo-neutralzone”, which is increasinglywhere we choose to live and work.
There is no denyingthatambienttemperatures(环境温度) havechanged in the past few decades. Between 1970 and 2000, the averageBritishhomewarmedfrom a chilly 13C to 18C. In the US, the changeshavebeen at the other end of the thermometer as the proportion of homeswith air conditioningsrosefrom 23% to 47% between 1978 and 1997. In the southernstates – whereobesityratestend to be highest – the number of houseswith air conditioning has shot up to 71% from 37% in 1978.
Could air conditioning in summer and heating in winterreallymake a difference to our weight?
Sadly，there is someevidencethat it does-at leastwithregard to heating. Studiesshowthat in comfortabletemperatures we use lessenergy.
Bad news: smokersreally do tend to be thinnerthan the rest of us,and quittingreallydoespack on the pounds, though no one isn sure why. It probably has something to do with the factthatnicotine is an appetitesuppressant and appears to up yourmetabolicrate.
KatherineFlegal and colleagres at the US NationalCenter for HealthStatistics in Hyattsville,Maryland, havecalculatedthatpeoplekicking the habithavebeenrespousible for a small but significantportion of the US epidemic of fatness.Fromdatacollectedaroud 1991 by the US NationalHealth and NutritionExaminationSurvey,theyworked out thatpeople who had quit in the previousdecadeweremuchmorelikely to be overweightthansmokers and people who had neversmoked .Among men, for example, nearlyhalf of quitterswereoverweightcomparedwith 37% of non-smokers and only 28%of smokers.
GeneticeffectsYourschances of becoming fat may be set,at least in part,before you wereevenborn.children of boesemothers are muchmorelikely to becomeobestthemselveslater in life.Offspring of mice fed a high-fat dietduringpregnancy are muchmorelikely to become fat than the offspring of identicalmice fed a normaldiet. Intriguingly,the effectpersists for two or threegenerations.Grand-children of mice fed a high-fat dietgrow up fat even if their own mother is fed normally-so you fate may havebeensealedevenbefore you wereconceived.
Somegroups of peoplejusthappen to be fatterthanothers.surveyscarried out by the US nationalcenter for healthstatistiesfoundthatadultsaged 40 to 79 werearoundthreetimes as likely to be obese as youngerpeople.non-whitefemalesalsotend to fall at the fatter end of the spectreum:Mexican-americanwomen are 30% morelikelythanwhitewomen to be obsess,and blackwomenhavetwice the risk.
In the US,thesegroupsaccount for an increasingpercentage of the population.between 1970 and 2000 the US populationaged 35 to 44 grew by 43%.the proportion of Hispanic-americansalsogrew,fromunder 5% to 12.5% of the population,while the proportion of blackAmericansincreasedfrom 11% to 12.3%.thesechanges may account in part for the increasedprevalence of obesity.
maturemumsMothersaround the world are gettingolder.in the UK,the mean age for aving a fristchild is 27.3,comparedwith 23.7 in 1970 .mean age at fristbirth in the US has alsoincreased, risingfrom 21.4 in 1970 to 24.9 in 2000.
Thiswould be neitherhere nor there if it were’t for the observationthathaving an oldermotherseems to be an independentriskfactor for obesity. Resultsfrom the US nationalheart,lung and bloodinstitute’s studyfoundthat the odds of a childbeingobeseincrease 14% for everyfiveextrayears of theirmother’s age , though why thisshould be so is not entirelyclear.
MichaelSymonds at the university of Nottingham,UK,foundthatfirst-bronchildrenhavemore fat thanyoungerones. As familysizedecreases, firstbronsaccount for a greathershare of the population. In 1964, britishwomengavebirth to an average of 2.95 children;by 2005 thatfigure had fallen to 1.79. in the US in 1976, 9.6% of woman in their 40s had only one chile;in 2004 it was 17.4%. thiscombination of oldermothers and moresinglechildrencould be contributing to the obesityepidemic.
.LikemarryinglikeJust as peoplepair off according to looks, so they do for size. Leanpeople are morelikely to marrylean an d fat morelikely to marry fat. On its own, likemarryinglikecannotaccount for any increase in obesity. But combinedwithothers- particularly the factthatobesity is partlygenetic, and thatheavierpeoplehavemorechildren-it amplifies the increaseformothercauses.Not enoughsleep
It is widelybelievedthatsleep is for the brain, not the body. Could a shortage of shut-eye also be helping to make us fat?
Severallarge-scalestudiessuggest 【題組】18. (A)The building of the dam needs a largebudget (B)the proposedsite is near the residentialarea (C)the localpeople fel insecureabout the dam
(D)the dam poses a threat to the localenvironmentQuestion19 to21 are based on the conversation you havejustheard