If food is allowed to stand for some time, it putrefies .When the putrefied material
is examined microscopically ,it is found to be teeming with bacteria. Where do these
bacteria come from , since they are not seen in fresh food? Even until the mid-nineteenth
century, many people believed that such microorganisms originated by spontaneous
(5 ) generation ,a hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving
The most powerful opponent of the theory of spontaneous generation was the French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur(1822-1895).Pasteur showed that structures
present in air closely resemble the microorganisms seen in putrefying materials .He did
(10) this by passing air through guncotton filters, the fibers of which stop solid particles. After
the guncotton was dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether, the particles that it had
trapped fell to the bottom of the liquid and were examined on a microscope slide .Pasteur
found that in ordinary air these exists a variety of solid structures ranging in size from
0.01 mm to more than 1.0 mm .Many of these bodies resembled the reproductive
(15)structures of common molds, single-celled animals, and various other microbial cells .
As many as 20 to 30 of them were found in fifteen liters of ordinary air ,and they could
not be distinguished from the organisms found in much larger numbers in putrefying materials .Pasteur concluded that the organisms found in putrefying materials originated
from the organized bodies present in the air .He postulated that these bodies are constantly
(20)being deposited on all objects.
Pasteur showed that if a nutrient solution was sealed in a glass flask and heated to
boiling to destroy all the living organisms contaminating it, it never putrefied .The proponents of spontaneous generation declared that fresh air was necessary for
spontaneous generation and that the air inside the sealed flask was affected in some way
(25)by heating so that it would no longer support spontaneous generation. Pasteur constructed a swan-necked flask in which putrefying materials could he heated to boiling, but air
could reenter. The bends in the neck prevented microorganisms from getting in the flask.. Material sterilized in such a flask did not putrefy. 【題組】3,Which of the following questions did the theory of spontaneous generation attempt to answer?
(A)What is the origin of the living organisms are seen on some food?
(B)How many types of organisms can be found on food?
(C)What is the most effective way to prepare living organisms for microscopic examination?
(D)How long can food stand before it putrefies?
Marc Chagall paintings have recently enjoyed a strong surge in popularity. His abstract post-impressionist style with biblical undertones embodies a deep passion for life, while still maintaining a zest for the whimsical, and at times, childish. These characteristics give Marc Chagall paintings a unique richness that few other artists of his time were capable of. Marc Chagall wastes no space as every square inch of his canvas is filled with vibrant and powerful colors. A Marc Chagall painting is truly a feast for the eyes. On the wall of any gallery, you may see a Marc Chagall painting representing a strong, deeply colored iconic image, while right next to it will be one of his brightly colored, fancy-free scenes of a family dinner. This is part of the reason why Marc Chagall paintings are so popular; he manages to remain faithful to his style, while still providing us with a wide variety of options. Marc Chagall was born in 1887 to a poor Jewish family in Russia. He began to display his artistic talent while studying at a secular Russian school, and despite his father’s disapproval, in 1907 he began studying art with Leon Bakst in St. Petersburg. It was at this time that his distinct style that we recognize today began to emerge. As his paintings began to center on images from his childhood, the focus that would guide his artistic motivation for the rest of his life came to fruition. In 1910, Chagall, moved to Paris for four years. It was during this period that he painted some of his most famous paintings of the Jewish village, and developed the features that became recognizable trademarks of his art. Strong and bright colors began to portray the world in a dreamlike state. Fantasy, nostalgia, and religion began to fuse together to create otherworldly images. During World War I, Chagall resided in Russia, and in 1922, he left Russia, settling in France one year later. He lived there permanently except for the years 1941 - 1948 when, fleeing France during World War II, he resided in the United States. Chagall's horror over the Nazi rise to power is expressed in works depicting Jewish martyrs and refugees. In addition to images of the Jewish world, Chagall's paintings are inspired by themes from the Bible. His fascination with the Bible culminated in a series of over 100 etchings illustrating the Bible, many of which incorporate elements from folklore and from religious life in Russia. Israel, which Chagall first visited in 1931 for the opening of the Tel Aviv Art Museum, is likewise endowed with some of Chagall's work, most notably the twelve stained glass windows at Hadassah Hospital and wall decorations at the Knesset. Chagall received many prizes and much recognition for his work. He was also one of very few artists to exhibit work at the Louvre in their lifetime. From http://www.chagallpaintings.org/
【題組】38、（ ） Based on the article, what kind of images can’t be seen in Marc Chagall’s works?
(A) religion (B) nostalgia (C) Jewish (D) Russian
27.From September 1-14, a wide range of products will be displayed throughout the two weeks of the exhibition. This year’s focus will be on laundry appliances, which represent over half of the exhibits. What kind of products will be emphasized?
(A) Air conditioners (B) Kitchen appliances (C) Computer software (D) Washing machines
The human brain is divided into two sides, called the right brain and the left brain. The two sides
work together, but each side has its own way of using information to help us think, understand, and
process information. The left side is more verbal and logical. It names things and puts them into
groups. It uses rules and likes ideas to be clear, logical and orderly. It is best at speech, reading,
writing, and math. You use this side of the brain when you memorize spelling and grammar rules or
when you do a math problem. The right side is more visual and creative. It specializes in using
information it receives from the senses--sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. This side of the brain likes
to dream and experiment. It controls your appreciation of music, color, and art. You use this side when
you draw a picture or listen to music. Although we all use both sides of the brain, one side is usually
dominant. Some people are more “left-brained,” and others are more “right-brained.” Our dominant
side influences the kinds of jobs and hobbies we have.
【題組】27. According to this passage, which kind of people can be considered “right- brained?”
(A) musicians (B) accountants (C) engineers (D) lawyers