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   Dr. Rubin, director of the Center for Biotechnology at the State University of New York, is reporting that in mice, a simple treatment that does not involve drugs seems to be directing cells to turn into bone instead of fat. 
   All he does is put mice on a plate that shakes with repeated small, quick movements at such a low frequency that some people cannot even feel it. The mice stand there for 15 minutes a day, five days a week. Afterwards, they have 27 percent less fat than mice that did not stand on the plate—and correspondingly more bone
   Some scientists are hopeful. They claim that in mice, sheep and turkeys, at least, standing on a flat vibrating plate led to bone growth. Small studies in humanschildren with brain damage who could not move much on their own—indicated that the vibrations might build bone in people, too. They continue to support their argument with a recent finding that a stem cell in bone marrow can turn into either fat or bone, depending on what message it receives
   However, other scientists are skeptical. They believe there may be other reasons that the mice were less fat. For instance, the mice on the vibrating plate were simply burning more calories because they were using more energy to balance themselves on a plate that moved 90 times a minute. Dr. Leibel, a researcher at Columbia University, also questioned the idea that precursor cells from bone marrow could turn into fat cells in the rest of the body.

【題組】73. Which of the following can NOT be inferred from this passage?
(A) Low vibrations may give mice better bones and less fat.
(B) A few studies indicate that animals receiving vibration treatment have shown growth in their bones.
(C) Experts have mixed feelings about Dr. Rubin’s work.
(D) With well-established animal studies, further definite studies in humans may not be necessary.
答案: [無官方正解]
67. Science can’t explain the power of pets ,but many studies have shown that the company of prts can help lower blood pressure ( 血压) and raise chances of recovering from a heart attack, reduce loneliness and spread all-round good cheer. Any owner will tell you how much joy a pet brings.For some, an animal provides more comfort than a husband/wife . A 2002 study by Karen Allen of the State University of New York measured stress(紧张) levels and blood pressure in people-half of them pet ownerswhile they performed 5 minutes of mental arithmetic(算术) or held a hand in ice water . Subjects completed the tasks alone , with a husband/wife, a close friend or with a pet . People with pets did it best. Those tested with their animal friends had smaller change in blood pressure and returned most quick to base line beart rates. With pets in the room, people also made fewer math mistakes that when doing in front of other companions. It seems people feel more relaxed (放松) around pets, says Allen, who thinks it may be because pets don’t judge. A study reported last fall suggests that having a pet dog not only raises your spirits but may also have an effect on your eating habits. Researchers at Northwestern Memorial Hospital spent a year studying 36 fat people and their equally fatdogs on diet-and-exercise programs; a separate group of 56 people without pets were put on a diet program. On average, people lost about 11 pounds, or 5% of their body weight. Dog owners didn’t lose any more weight than those without dogs but, say researchers, got more exercise overall-mostly with their dogs-and found it worth doing. What does the texomainly discuss?
(A) What pots bring to their owners.
(B) How pets help people calm down.
(C) People’s opinions of keeping pets.
(D) Pet’s value in medical research.
55. In 1974, after filling out fifty applications, going through four interviews, and winning one offer, I took what I could get ---- a teaching job at what I considered a distant wild area ; western New Jersey. My characteristic optimism was alive only when I reminded myself that I would be doing what I had wanted to do since I was fourteen---- teaching English. School started, but I felt more and more as if I were in a foreign country. Was this rural area really New Jersey? My studies took a week off when hunting season began. I was told they were also frequently absent in late October to help their fathers make hay on the farms. I was a young woman from New York City, who thought thatMake hay while the sun shinesjust meant to have a good time. But, still, I was teaching English. I worked hard, taking time off only to eat and sleep. And then there was my sixth-grade class ------seventeen boys and five girls who were only six years younger than me. I had a problem long before I know it. I was struggling in my work as a young idealistic teacher . I wanted to make literature come alive and to promote a love of the written word. The students wanted to throw spitballs and whisper dirty words in the back of the room In college I had been taught that a successful educator should ignore bad behavior . So I did, confident that, as the textbook had said, the bad behavior would disappear as I gave my students positive attention. It sounds reasonable, but the text evidently ignored the fact that humans, particularly teenagers, rarely seem reasonable/ By the time my boss, who was also my taskmaster ,known to be the strictest, most demanding, most quick to fire inexperienced teachers, came into the classroom to observe me, the students exhibited very little good behavior to praise. My boss sat in the back of the room. The boys in the class were making animal noises, hitting each other while the girls their nails or read magazines. I just pretended it all was n’t happening, and went on lecturing and tried to ask some inspiring questions. My boss, sitting in the back of the room, seemed to be growing bigger and bigger. After twenty minutes he left, silently. Visions of unemployment marches before my eyes. I felt mildly victorious that I got through the rest of class without crying, but at my next free period I had to face him. I wondered if he would let me finish out the day. I walked to his office, took a deep breath, and opened the door. He was gitting in his chair, and he looked at me long and hard. I said nothing. All I could think of was that I was not an English teacher; I had been lying to myself, pretending that everything was fine. When he spoke, he said simply, without accusation,”You had nothing to say to them.” “You had nothing to say to them.”he repeated,”No wonder they’re bored. Why not get to the meat of the literature and stop talking about symbolism.”Talk with them, not at them. And more important, why do you ignore their bad behavior?’”We talked. He named my problems and offered solutions. We role played. He was the bad student, and I was the forceful, yet ,warm,teacher/ As the year progressed, we spent many hours discussing literature and ideas about human being. And their attentions ,he helped me identify my weakness and my strengths. In short, he made a teacher of me by teaching me the reality of Emerson’s words;”The secret to education lies in respecting the pupil.” Fifteen years later I still drive that same winding road to the same school. Thanks to the help I received that difficult first year, the school is my home now. It can be inferred from the story that in 1974_______.
(A) The writer became an optimistic person
(B) The writer was very happy about her new job
(C) It was rather difficult to get a job in the USA
(D) It was easy to get a teaching job in New Jersey
Question 20-30 Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events, anticipate future ones, make plans and choices, and coordinate activities within a group. These scientists, however, are cautious about the extent to which animals can be credited with conscious processing. (5) Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all and ascribe actions entirely to instinct leave many questions unanswered. One example of such unexplained behavior: Honeybees communicate the sources of nectar to one another by doing a dance in a figure-eight pattern. The orientation of the dance conveys the position of the food relative to the sun's position in the sky, (10)and the speed of the dance tells how far the food source is from the hive. Most researchers assume that the ability to perform and encode the dance is innate and shows no special intelligence. But in one study, when experimenters kept changing the site of the food source, each time moving the food 25 percent farther from the previous site, foraging honeybees began to anticipate where the food source would (15) appear next. When the researchers arrived at the new location, they would find the bees circling the spot, waiting for their food. No one has yet explained how bees, whose brains weigh four ten-thousandths of an ounce, could have inferred the location of the new site. Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many (20)animals, like the otter who uses a stone to crack mussel shells, are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools. One researcher has found that mother chimpanzees occasionally show their young how to use tools to open hard nuts. In one study, chimpanzees compared two pairs of food wells containing chocolate chips. One pair might contain, say, five chips and three chips, the other (25)our chips and three chips. Allowed to choose which pair they wanted, the chimpanzees almost always chose the one with the higher total, showing some sort of summing ability. Other chimpanzees have learned to use numerals to label quantities of items and do simple sums.
【題組】20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The role of instinct in animal behavior
(B) Observations that suggest consciousness in animal behavior
(C) The use of food in studies of animal behavior
(D) Differences between the behavior of animals in their natural environments and in laboratory experiments.
5 The EPO allowed a patent on a transgenic animal that had been bred as a research tool for cancer studies despite objections that it was _____ to patented life. Choose the one word that best completes the above sentences.
(A) immoral
(B) immortal
(C) irreverent
(D) insignificant
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