In the yearsleading up to the FirstWorld War, the realisttradition in the UnitedStates
was given new lifewithin the ranks of the so-calledAshcanSchool, a termthatlooselydescribes a group of artists in New York who favored, as the nameimplies, commonplaceLinesubjects, evenonesthatemphasized the seedyaspects of dailylife. In an era when the
5 UnitedStates was shiftingfrom an agricultural to an industriallybasedeconomy, artiststurned to the vitality of the city for theirthemes, sometimesdocumenting the lives of the
nation's urbaninhabitantswith a literalnessthatshockedviewersaccustomed to the blandgeneralizations of academic art. Thus, the firstmodernAmericanrevolution in painting in
the earlytwentiethcentury was not awayfrom, but toward, realism.
10 The developmentstowardrealism and new pictorialsubjectmatterintroduced by thisrevolution are explained in part by the factthat the academicspirit had becomeanathema
to manyyoungpainters by the beginning of the twentiethcentury, when the professionalsurvival of an artist was largelycontingent on membership in the NationalAcademy of
Design, the Americanequivalent of the FrenchAcademy of Aits. The NationalAcademy
15 of Designperpetuated the Traditions of ftp FrenchAcademy, such as annualjuriedexhibitions. Although it mergedwith the moretolerantSociety of AmericanArtists in
1907, it remainedsteadfastlyintolerant of new developments.
At the sametime, importantvenues in New York, particularlyAlfredStteglitz's galleryknown as 291 and* in 1913, the giganticexhibition of modern art known as the Armory
20 Show, introducedEuropeanmodernists to Americanaudiences and nurtured a number
of Americanartistscommitted not to realism but to experimental art During the 1930's,
the country's focusturnedinward, givingrise to new varieties of realist art based on
intrinsicallyAmericanthemes. Thesewerepracticed by the so-calledRegionalists, who
recorded the rurallire of the Midwest, and the morepoliticallyengagedSocialRealists,
25 who documented the socialconsequences of extremeeconomicchange. Also a fertileperiod for Americanphotography, the era before the SecondWorld War witnessed the development of photojournalism, as well as socialdocumentary and advertisingphotography.
【題組】48. Why docs the authormention the ArmoryShow in lines 19-20?
(A)To explain why mostAmericanartisterejected the influence or Europeanexperimental art
(B)To explain why politicallyengaged art developed in the UnitedStatesduring the 1930’s
(C)To give an example of an exhibitionthatintroducedmodemEuropeanartists (D)To arguethatAmericanpainterswere not sufficientlyexposed to experimental art