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Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified(GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released. The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her. But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. “They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired,” Ingham told New Scientist. The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week. “We would lose terrestrial(陆生的) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EP
(A) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999. But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of “presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information” and “generating speculative doomsday scenarios(世界末日的局面) that are not scientifically supportable”. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials. The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides(生物杀虫剂) division, saysthere is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test” the organism. Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use. Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her. “I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,” says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. “It’s n attempt to silence the opposition.”

【題組】21.The passage centers on the controversy .
(A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification
(B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued
(C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants
(D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university
編輯私有筆記
答案:C
難度:適中
16. When a bacterium becomes too large, it splits in half and forms two new bacteria, ________ its own cell wall and protoplasm.
(A) each has
(B) with each
(C) has each
(D) each with
編輯私有筆記
答案:D
難度:適中
1F
【站僕】摩檸Morning 大三上 (2014/04/25 10:57)
原本答案為C,修改為D
第 48 至 51 題為題組 
        Scientists are trying to genetically modify the world in which we live. They are even trying to wipe out diseases via genetic modification. For example, researchers have tried to engineer mosquitoes to kill malaria parasites. The malaria parasite is carried by the female Anopheles mosquito. When transmitted to a human, the parasite travels first to the liver and then on to the bloodstream, where it reproduces and destroys red blood cells. An estimated 250 million people suffer from malaria each year, and about one million die—many of them children. There are currently no effective or approved malaria vaccines
        To “killmalaria, scientists are genetically modifying a bacterium in mosquitoes so that it releases toxic compounds. These compounds are not harmful to humans or the mosquito itself, but they do kill off the malaria parasite, making the mosquito incapable of infecting humans with malaria
        Despite this achievement, scientists are faced with the challenge of giving the modified mosquitoes a competitive advantage so that they can eventually replace the wild population. Complete blockage of the malaria parasite is very important. If some of the parasites slip through the mechanism, then the next generation will likely become resistant to it. And if that happens, the scientists are back where they started
        Another challenge for scientists is to gain public approval for this genetic modification regarding mosquitoes and malaria control. Environmental activists have raised concerns about the release of genetically engineered organisms without any clear knowledge of their long-term effect on ecosystems and human health. There is still a long way to go before genetic modification techniques are put to use in disease control


【題組】51. What doesthat” in the third paragraph refer to?
(A) Some malaria parasites escaping from the ecosystems.
(B) Malaria parasites becoming immune to the engineered bacterium.
(C) Modified mosquitoes becoming more competitive than the wild ones.
(D) Transmission of malaria being blocked from mosquitoes to humans.
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答案:B
難度:適中
10
 【站僕】摩檸Morning:有沒有達人來解釋一下?
倒數 15時 ,已有 0 則答案


75. 下列有關 cilia-associated respiratory Bacillus 之敘述,何者正確?
(A) 可感染小鼠、大鼠、兔及牛
(B) 此菌必須與其他呼吸道病原菌(如黴漿菌)共同感染時,才可引起肺部病變
(C) 為革蘭氏陽性菌,主要感染呼吸道
(D) 屬於胞內細菌(intracellular bacterium),無法培養
編輯私有筆記
答案:A
難度:適中
10
 【站僕】摩檸Morning:有沒有達人來解釋一下?
倒數 6天 ,已有 0 則答案


37. Biologists have discovered how to put together a bacteriophage with the protein coat of phage T2 and the DNA of phage lambda. If this composite phage was allowed to infect a bacterium, the phages produced in the host cell would have
(A) a mixture of the DNA and proteins of both phages.
(B) the protein and DNA of phage lambda.
(C) the protein of phage T2 and the DNA of phage lambda.
(D) the protein of phage lambda and the DNA of phage T2.
編輯私有筆記
答案:B
難度:簡單
10
 【站僕】摩檸Morning:有沒有達人來解釋一下?
倒數 2天 ,已有 0 則答案