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搜尋:bryson

E It is widely known that any English conversation begins with The Weather. Such a fixation with the weather finds expression in Dr.Johnson’s famous comment thatWhen two English meet, their first talk is of weather.” Though Johnson’s observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago, most commentators fail to come up with a convincing explanation for this English weather-speak. Bill Bryson, for ezample, concludes that,as the English weather is not at all exciting,the obsession with it can hardly be understood. He argues that”To an outsider,the most striking thing about the
(E)nglish weather is that there is not very much of it.” Simply, the reason is that the unusual and unpredictable weather is almost unknown in the British Isles. Jeremy Paxman, however, disagrees with Bryson, arguing that the English weather is by nature attractive. Bryson is wrong, he says,because the English preference for the weather has nothing to do with the natural phenomena.”The interest is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty.” According to him, the weather in England is very changeable and uncertain and it attracts the English as well as the outsider. Bryson and Paxman stand for common misconceptions about the weather-speak among the English. Both commentators, somehow, are missing the point. The English weather conversation is not really about the weather at all. English weather-speak is a system of signs ,which is developed to help the speakers overcome the natural reserve and actually talk to each other. Everyone knows conversations starting with weather-speak are not requests for weather data. Rather, they are routine greetings,conversation starters or the blankfillers”, In other words, English weather-speak is a means of social bonding. The author mentions

【題組】74.According to the passage,Jeremy Paxman believes that________.
(A).Bill Bryson has little knowledge of the weather
(B).there is nothing special about the
(E)nglish weather]
(C).the English weather attracts people to the British Isles
(D).English people talk about the weather for its unccrtainty
編輯私有筆記
答案:D
難度:適中
【題組】75.What is the author’s main purpose of writing the passage?
(A).To explain what English weather-speak is about.
(B).To analyse misconceptions about the English weather.
(C).To find fault with both Bill Bryson and Jeremy Paxman.
(D).To convince people that the English weather is changeable.
編輯私有筆記
答案:A
難度:適中
1. 把繪畫分為「言談繪畫」與「形象繪畫」,擅用符號學的理論詮釋作品的美術史學者是:
(A)布萊遜(N. Bryson
(B)羅蘭巴特(R. Barthes
(C)沃夫林(H. Wölfflin
(D)潘諾夫斯基(E. Panofsky
編輯私有筆記
答案:A
難度:困難
3F
魅影埃及 高一上 (2015/06/18 06:54)

10.當代藝術史學家潘諾夫斯基(E.Panofsky)曾經描述他在美國所見第二次大戰前後的產品設計,有感而發「廚房中的食物處理機,都被設計成彷彿正要送進風洞測試速度」,這是哪一種設計流派所作的描述?

未來主義(Futureism)流線型風格(Streamline Style)高科技風格(High Tech Style)後現代主義(Post-Modernism)
正確答案: 
流線型風格(Streamline Style)
4F
魅影埃及 高一上 (2015/06/18 07:05)
羅蘭巴特  作者之死編輯

依賴作者的身份,他的政治觀點,他所處時代的歷史背景,他的宗教信仰,種族,道德觀念,精神分析或者是其他的傳記之類來理解,解讀一部作品。巴特認為這種批評雖然帶有梳理性也可信,但是絕對是有不可忽視的瑕疵的。這種做法等於「賦予文本一個作者」,並且導致「對文本強加限定」。因此,讀者有必要講將文本與作者剝離以此來逃避暴力解讀。

所有文本都有很多層次和意義。巴特認為文本和織物是有相似之處的,他認為「文本就是引用的編織」,是從「無數文化與個人經驗中心」而來的。而文本的本質意義是什麼,完全是由讀者的印象決定的,這與作家的「激情」或者「品味」無關。也就是說,一個文本是在讀者那裡獲得統一的。每一部作品都在被閱讀的「此刻」被重寫,因為原著的意義本來就存在於語言本身和讀者的印象與理解中。

巴特認為傳統的批評存在一個特別令人鬱悶的問題:我們怎麼精確探尋到作者真正的意圖呢?答案根本就是「不可能的」。舉例:巴爾扎克的《薩拉辛》講一個男人誤把一被個閹割的男歌手當成了女人並且愛上了「她」,在文中這個人物愛上的是「她」的女性氣質。巴特向他的讀者提出了問題:「這是巴爾扎克有意將女性氣質搬入文學作品嗎?還是這是一種普遍的智慧?或者是浪漫主義的精神分析?……我們永遠也不可能知道了」。寫作這種「摧毀每一種聲音」的東西挑戰了每一種單一的闡釋或者視角。

超現實主義運動中藉助「自動書寫」(automatic writing)去表達「頭腦意識不到的」東西;語言學領域也有「一切闡釋都是無意義的」。巴特的這篇文章就是分離「權威與作者有必然聯繫」這種想法的說明。也是前面兩種觀點的延伸。讀者不去發掘「單純的『理論上』的意義(作者作為上帝所要傳達的信息)」,而是在多維的空間中去認識寫作並非被「解釋」,而是被「解開」。「不需要去設定一個『秘密』或者說終極意義,而是給反理論行為鬆綁,這種反理論行為就是拒絕意義的,也藉由此拒絕了『上帝』和他的那些本質——緣由,科學還有法律。」

5F
106必上美術正式老師 高三下 (2016/06/02 22:24)
  • Bryson的符號學觀看方法

將繪畫作為符號系統,Bryson認為的符號是在文本中的時間、空間面向裡自由地移動,而文本或繪畫的結構由符號的散播方式決定,其意義從詮釋者得來,也就是說符號意義來自其環境文化的植入,或是本身的反射。若要寫藝術的文章便從文獻與詮釋兩方面的要求著手。文獻方面要從所有文化範疇的複雜互動去瞭解,包括:現實生活中的科學、宗教、學術、階級、政治、性別…等。而詮釋方面則機符號置於歷史的考慮中,從「當時」與「現在」來詮釋,不過「當時」的歷史也是基於現在的說法,並且要持續地詮釋。因此,所有的詮釋是在特定歷史之中、某種生活形式以及詮釋的機制之下進行。事實上,當我們在進行詮釋的時候已經這麼做了。