To paraphrase 18th-centurystatesmanEdmundBurke, “all that is needed for the triumph of a misguidedcause is thatgoodpeople do nothing.”One suchcause now seeks to end biomedicalresearchbecause of the theorythatanimalshaverightsruling out their use in research. Scientistsneed to respondforcefully to animalrightsadvocates, whosearguments are confusing the public and therebythreateningadvances in healthknowledge and care. Leaders of the animalrightsmovementtargetbiomedicalresearchbecause it depends on publicfunding, and few peopleunderstand the process of healthcareresearch. Hearingallegations of cruelty to animals in researchsettings, many are perplexedthatanyonewoulddeliberatelyharm an animal.
For example, a grandmotherlywomanstaffing an animalrightsbooth at a recentstreetfair was distributing a brochurethatencouragedreaders not to use anythingthatopposedimmunizations, she wanted to know if vaccinescomefromanimalresearch. Whenassuredthatthey do, she replied, “Then I wouldhave to say yes.”Askedwhatwillhappenwhenepidemicsreturn, she said, “Don't worry, scientistswillfindsome way of usingcomputers.”Suchwell-meaningpeoplejust don's understand.
Scientistsmustcommunicatetheirmessage to the public in a compassionate, understandable way-in humanterms, not in the language of molecularbiology. We need to makeclear the connectionbetweenanimalresearch and a grandmother's hip replacement, a father's bypassoperation a baby's vaccinations, and even a pet's shots. To those who are unawarethatanimalresearch was needed to producethesetreatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearchseemswasteful at best and cruel at worst.
Much can be done. Scientistscould“adopt”middleschoolclasses and presenttheir own research. Theyshould be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lestanimalrightsmisinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptiveappearance of truth. Researchinstitutionscould be opened to tours, to showthatlaboratoryanimalsreceivehumanecare. Finally, because the ultimatestakeholders are patients, the healthresearchcommunityshouldactivelyrecruit to its cause not onlywell-knownpersonalitiessuch as StephenCooper, who has madecourageousstatementsabout the value of animalresearch, but all who receivemedicaltreatment. If goodpeople do nothingthere is a realpossibilitythat an uninformedcitizenrywillextinguish the preciousembers of medicalprogress. 【題組】46.The authorbegins his articlewithEdmundBurke's words to
(A) call on scientists to takesomeactions.
(B) criticize the misguidedcause of animalrights.
(C) warn of the doom of biomedicalresearch.
(D) show the triumph of the animalrightsmovement.
Whateverhappened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemednear. The recessionthreatened to remove the advertising and readersthat had not alreadyfled to the internet. Newspaperslike the San FranciscoChroniclewerechroniclingtheir own doom. America’s FederalTradecommissionlaunched a round of talksabout how to savenewspapers. Shouldtheybecomecharitablecorporations? Should the statesubsidizethem ? It willholdanothermeetingsoon. But the discussions now seem out of date.
In much of the worldthere is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilianpapershaveshrugged off the recession. EvenAmericannewspapers, whichinhabit the mosttroubledcome of the globalindustry, have not onlysurvived but oftenreturned to profit. Not the 20% profitmarginsthatwereroutine a few years ago, but profit all the same.
It has not beenmuch fun. Manypapersstayedafloat by pushingjournalistsoverboard. The AmericanSociety of NewsEditorsreckonsthat 13,500 newsroomjobshavegonesince 2007. Readers are payingmore for slimmerproducts. Somepaperseven had the nerve to refusedelivery to distantsuburbs. Yet thesedesperatemeasureshaveproved the rightones and, sadly for manyjournalists, they can be pushedfurther.
Newspapers are becomingmorebalancedbusinesses, with a healthier mix of revenuesfromreaders and advertisers. Americanpapershavelongbeenhighlyunusual in theirreliance on ads. Fully 87% of theirrevenuescamefromadvertising in 2008, according to the Organization for EconomicCooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanesenewspapers are muchmorestable.
The whirlwindthatsweptthroughnewsroomsharmedeverybody, but much of the damage has beenconcentrated in areaswherenewspaper are leastdistinctive. Car and filmreviewershavegone. So havescience and generalbusinessreporters. Foreignbureaushavebeensavagely cut off. Newspapers are lesscomplete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaperbusiness.
【題組】26. By saying “Newspaperslike … their own doom” (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the authorindicatesthatnewspaper .
(A)neglected the sign of crisis (B)failed to get statesubsidies (C)were not charitablecorporations (D)were in a desperatesituation
PaulZindel’s death on March 27,2003 ended the brilliantlife of a famouswriter.
Not only did PaulZindel win a PulitzerPrize as well as an ObiePrize for his 1970 play The Effect of GammaRays on Man-in-the-MoonMarigolds, but be was one of the earliestwriters in the field of contemporary（当代的） literature for youngadults（成人）. The Pigman, published in 1968, is still one of the mostwell-known and widely-taughtnovels in the genre. The AmericanLibraryAssociation has named it one of the 100 Best of the BestBooks for YoungAdultspublishedbetween 1967 and 1992, and Zindel’s autobiography, The Pigman and Me, was among the 100 Best of the BestBookspublished for teenagersduring the lastpart of the twentiethcentury. Six of Zindel’s books, in fact, havebeenvoted the BestBooks for YoungAdults, and most of his recenthorrorbooks-such as The DoomStone and Rats-havebeenchosen as QuickPicks for ReluctantYoungAdultReaders. Clearly, he was a writer who knew how to interestcontemporarychildren. Recognizingthat, the AmericanLibraryAssociation in 2002 honoredPaulZindelwith the Margaret A. EdwardsPrize for his lifetimeachievements, and laterthatsameyear he was presentedwith the ALANPrize for his contributions to YoungAdultLiterature. With his passing, youngreaders, teachers, and librarianshavelost a greatfriend.
【題組】56Which of PaulZindel’s books was the mostpopularwithyoungadults in the 20th century?
(C)The Pigman and Me.
(D)The Effect of GammaRays on Man-in-the-MoonMarigolds.
【題組】59．Choose the correctstatementsfrom the followingaccording to the passage.
a.The Pigman and Me was one of the BestBooks for teenagers.
b.Zindel was one of the earliestwriters who wrote for adultsonly.
c.The DoomStone and Rats are not popularwithyoungadults.
d.Zindel was givenfourprizes for literaturebefore he died.
e.At leasteight of Zindel’s bookswereverypopular in his times.
(A)c, d, e (B)a, b, c (C)a, b, d (D)a, d, e
IT’S a nearbycountrywheremostnativesspeakEnglish and there are 16 majorculturaldifferencesfrom the UnitedStates. 17 the number of Americanschoosing to
headnorth to retire in Canada has remained low—reaching a high of 1,675 in 2008 (for
immigrantsolderthan 49), thendipping to 1,060 in 2011, and 18 again in 2013 to an
Recentchanges to immigration law havedimmedCanada’s 19 somewhat,
certainly to wealthywould-be residents, who wereonceeligible to immigrate if they had a net
worth of $1.6 million and couldoffer an $800,000 interest-free, five-yearloan to the federalgovernment. Thatprogram, whichattractedsomepeoplewithmoney but littlecommitment to
20 in February, and 50,000 applications are to be returned. But for someAmericans,
Canada’s moreliberalsocial and economicpolicies, including 21 healthcarefrom the
government, remaindeeplyappealing. So, too, is the 22 of a countrywithspectacularlandscapes and, in someplaces, moreaffordablerealestate.
【題組】21. (A) cradle-to-doom (B) cradle-to-dome (C) cradle-to-grave (D) cradle-to-cross