Which one of the following is NOT a bottom-up processingskill of reading?
(A) Discriminateamong the distinctivegraphemes and orthographicpatterns of English.
(B) Recognizegrammaticalwordclasses, systems, patterns, rules, and ellipticalforms.
(C) Recognizecohesivedevices in writtendiscourse and theirrole in signaling the relationshipbetween and amongclauses.
(D) Recognizeletters and words and extractmeaningfrom the printedpage.
13. The centripetalacceleration of a planet in an ellipticalorbitabout the sun is greatestwhen the planet is
(A) nearest the sun.
(B) nearest the Earth.
(C) farthestfrom the sun.
(D) farthestfrom the Earth.
Galaxies are the majorbuildingblocks of the universe. A galaxy is giantfamily of manymillions of stars, and it is heldtogether by its own gravitationalfield. Most of the materialuniverse is organizedintogalaxies of starstogetherwith gas and dust.
There are threemaintypes of galaxy: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. The Milky Way is a spiralgalaxy, a flattishdisc of starswith two spiralarmsemergingfrom its centralnucleus. About one-quarter of all galaxieshavethisshape. Spiralgalaxies are wellsuppliedwith the interstellar gas in which new starsform: as the rotatingspiralpatternsweepsaround the galaxy it compresses gas and dust, triggering the formation of brightyoungstars and in its arms. The ellipticalgalaxieshave a symmetricalelliptical or spheroidalshapewith no obviousstructure. Most of theirmemberstars are very old and sinceellipticals are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them. The biggest and brightestgalaxies in the universe are ellipticalswithmasses of about 1013 timesthat of the Sun, thesegiants may frequently be sources of strongradioemission, in whichcasethey are calledradiogalaxies. About two-thirds of all galaxies are elliptical. Irregulargalaxiescompriseabout one-tenth of all galaxies and theycome in manysubclasses.
Measurement in space is quitedifferentfrommeasurement on Earth. Someterrestrialdistances can be expressed as intervals of time, the time to fly from one continent to another or the time it takes to drive to work, for example. By comparisonwiththesefamiliaryardsticks, the distances to the galaxies are incomprehensiblylarge, but they too are mademoremanageable by using a timecalibration, in thiscase the distancethatlighttravels in one year. On such a scale the nearestgiantspiralgalaxy, the Andromedagalaxy, is two millionlightyearsaway. The mostdistantluminousobjectsseen by telescopes are probably ten thousandmillionlightyearsaway. Theirlight was alreadyhalfwayherebefore the Earthevenformed. The lightfrom the nearbyVirgogalaxy set out whenreptilesstilldominated the animalworld.
【題組】40. Whatdoes the secondparagraphmainlydiscuss?
(A) The Milky Way
(B) Majorcategories of galaxies (C) How ellipticalgalaxies are formed (D) Differencesbetweenirregular and spiralgalaxies
【題組】45. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of ellipticalgalaxies?
(A) They are the largestgalaxies.
(B) Theymostlycontain old stars.
(C) Theycontain a highamount of interstellar gas.
(D) Theyhave a sphericalshape.
【題組】46. Which of the followingcharacteristics of radiogalaxies is mentioned in the passage?
(A) They are a type of ellipticalgalaxy.
(B) They are usually too small to be seenwith a telescope.
(C) They are closelyrelated to irregulargalaxies.
(D) They are not as bright as spiralgalaxies.