Ethology is concernedwith the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its
Evolutionaryhistory. Ethologicaltheorybegan to be applied to research on children in the
1960’s but has becomeevenmoreinfluentialtoday. The origins of ethology can be tracedLine to the work of Darwin. Its modernfoundationswerelaid by two Europeanzoologists,
5) KonradLorenz and NikoTinbergen.
Watching the behaviorsdiverseanimalspecies in theirnaturalhabitats, Lorenz, and
Tinbergenobservedbehaviorpatternsthatpromotesurvival. The mostwell-known of these
is imprinting, the carlyfollowingbehavior of certainbabybirdsthatensuresthat the youngwillstayclose to theirmother and be fed and protectedfromdanger. Imprintingtakesplace
10) during an early, restrictedtimeperiod of development. If the mothergoose is not presentduringthistime, but an objectresembling her in importantfeatures is, younggoslings may
imprint on it instead.
Observations of imprinting led to majorconceptthat has beenapplied in childDevelopment” the criticalperiod. It refers to a limitedtimes span duringwhich the child is
15) biologicallyprepared to acquirecertainadaptivebehaviors but needs the support of suitablystimulatingenvironment. Manyresearchershaveconductedstudies to find out whethercomplexcongnitive and socialbehaviorsmust be learnedduringrestrictedtimeperiods.
for example, if children are deprived of adequatefood or physical and socialstimulationduring the earlyyears of life, willtheirintelligence be permanentlyimpaired? If language
20) is not masteredduring the preschoolyears, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced?
Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the BritishpsychoanalystJohnBowlbyappliedethologicaltheory to the understanding of the relationshipbetween an infant and
its parents. He arguedthatattachmentbehaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling,
grasping, and crying, are built-in socialsignalsthatencourage the parents to approach,
25) care for, and interactwith the baby. By keeping a parentnear, thesebehaviorshelpensurethat the babywill be fed, protectedfromdanger, and providedwith the stimulation and
affectionnecessary for healthygrowth. The development of attachment in humaninfants
is a lengthyprocessinvolvingchanges in psychologicalstructuresthatlead to a deepaffectional tie betweenparent and baby.
【題組】34. According to the passage, if a mothergoose is
not presentduring the timeperiodwhenimprintingtakesplace, which of the followingwillmostlikelyoccur?
(A) The goslingwill not imprint on any object.
(B) The gosling may not find a matewhen it
(C) The motherwilllaterimprint on the gosling.
(D) The gosling may imprint on anotherobject.
【題組】40. It can be inferredfrom the passagethatethologicaltheoryassumesthat (A) to learnabouthumanbehavioronlyhumansubjectsshould be studied (B) failure to imprint has no influence on
inteligence (C) the notion of criticalperiodsappliesonly to
animals (D) there are similaritiesbetweenanimal and
55. Which of the followingstatementsconcerning “genomicimprinting” is FALSE?
(A) It is an exception to standardMedelianinheritance.
(B) In manycases, methylation of cytosineinvolves in genomicimprintduringembryoformation.
(C) A givenallelewillhavedifferenteffectthatdepends on father or motherpassedalong the allele.
(D) Most of the knownimprintedgenes are critical for embryonicdevelopment in mammal.
(E) In heterozygous of normal and recessivemutant Igf2 gene, the dwarfphenotype can be seen.
12. Bygren and otherscientistshave now amassedhistoricalevidencesuggestingthatpowerfulenvironmentalconditions can
somehowleave an _____ on the geneticmaterial in eggs and sperm.
(A) ink (B) mileage (C) showcase (D) imprint (E) imagery