Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its
Evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the
1960’s but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced
Line to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists,
5) Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen.
Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and
Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these
is imprinting, the carly following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young
will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place
10) during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present
during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may
imprint on it instead.
Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child
Development” the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is
15) biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably
stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether
complex congnitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods.
for example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation
during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language
20) is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced?
Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby
applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and
its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling,
grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach,
25) care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure
that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and
affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants
is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep
affectional tie between parent and baby.
【題組】34. According to the passage, if a mother goose is
not present during the time period when
imprinting takes place, which of the following
will most likely occur?
(A) The gosling will not imprint on any object.
(B) The gosling may not find a mate when it
(C) The mother will later imprint on the gosling.
(D) The gosling may imprint on another object.
【題組】40. It can be inferred from the passage that
ethological theory assumes that
(A) to learn about human behavior only human
subjects should be studied
(B) failure to imprint has no influence on
(C) the notion of critical periods applies only to
(D) there are similarities between animal and
55. Which of the following statements concerning “genomic imprinting” is FALSE?
(A) It is an exception to standard Medelian inheritance.
(B) In many cases, methylation of cytosine involves in genomic imprint during embryo formation.
(C) A given allele will have different effect that depends on father or mother passed along the allele.
(D) Most of the known imprinted genes are critical for embryonic development in mammal.
(E) In heterozygous of normal and recessive mutant Igf2 gene, the dwarf phenotype can be seen.
12. Bygren and other scientists have now amassed historical evidence suggesting that powerful environmental conditions can
somehow leave an _____ on the genetic material in eggs and sperm.
(A) ink (B) mileage (C) showcase (D) imprint (E) imagery