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Questions 31-40 Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its Evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960’s but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced Line to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, 5) Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen. Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the carly following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place 10) during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead. Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child Development” the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is 15) biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex congnitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. for example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language 20) is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced? Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, 25) care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby.
【題組】38.According to the passage, attachment behaviors of infants are intended to
(A) get the physical, emotional and social needs of the infant met
(B) allow the infant to become imprinted on objects that resemble the parent
(C) provide the infant with a means of self-stimulation
(D) prepare the infant to cope with separation
編輯私有筆記
答案:A
難度:非常簡單
55. Which of the following statements concerninggenomic imprinting” is FALSE?
(A) It is an exception to standard Medelian inheritance.
(B) In many cases, methylation of cytosine involves in genomic imprint during embryo formation.
(C) A given allele will have different effect that depends on father or mother passed along the allele.
(D) Most of the known imprinted genes are critical for embryonic development in mammal.
(E) In heterozygous of normal and recessive mutant Igf2 gene, the dwarf phenotype can be seen.
編輯私有筆記
答案:B
難度:非常困難
1F
菩提 國三下 (2015/09/28 21:23)
B:發生於配子階段