.An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half . In the internet age, at least in theory ,this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responging to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?
【題組】30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of:
As school nutrition officials gathered around a conference table in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on May 27, Michelle Obama’s
trademark hug-a-stranger vibe was notably absent. “This is unacceptable,” she said curtly. “It’s unacceptable to me not just as First Lady but also
as a mother.”
What was (32) Obama was an attempt by the Republican-controlled House of Representatives to ease school nutrition standards she
helped pass in 2010. “The stakes couldn’t be higher on this issue,” Obama said, noting that 1 in 3 U.S. children will develop Type 2 diabetes.
“The last thing we can afford to do right now is play politics with our kids’ health.”
But in the nation’s capital, even kids’ health can be political. In Congress, the interests of farmers and food companies regularly (33)
with the concerns of parents and the nutritional recommendations of the USDA. Nor is the school-lunch fight new: The standards the First Lady
is fighting to preserve have already been weakened once before (34) food-industry opposition.
This was, to some extent, inevitable. Ever since she made school meals a signature issue early in the President’s first term, the First Lady
has tried to join forces with the food industry on initiatives to shrink package sizes and include healthier fare on kids’ menus. In exchange, she
has moderated her criticism of junk food and acknowledged that there is nothing wrong with the occasional (35) . (She notably handed out
sugar-sweet marshmallow Peeps at the annual White House Easter Egg Roll and has called french fries a favorite food.)
But that tenuous alliance has been (36) as House Republicans, food-industry groups, and other stakeholders have pushed to allow
schools to delay the new federal standards. In 2011, Republicans held up funding for new rules in order to extract concessions favorable to the
potato and cheese industries. The First Lady’s critics also argue that the rules are inflexible and full compliance is too costly for some districts.
【題組】35. (A)adventure (B)completion (C)indulgence (D)shrillness
Recessions are bad—so bad that many people start to feel that they have 31 over their finances.
Some adopt a “victim” posture. Others rely on good luck or the actions of others to get them through a
down economy. This is 32 . The way to survive a recession is to be strategically hard-working,
practical, and flexible.
Well-off people do not rely on a single paycheck to 33 . They diversify their income through
part-time jobs. Individuals today can adopt the “multiple streams” model even on a small scale. The
point is: Learn not to put all eggs in one 34 . It is far better working part-time than just sitting in
front of TV watching the reruns of Three’s Company, Knight Rider or Friends. Why not offer to help
house chores, babysit or elder-sit at a reasonable hourly rate? Or offer graphic design, website
development, telemarketing or secretarial services to local businesses?
Another simple and inexpensive way to earn some cash is to get an online auction account. Ebay,
for example, is a fine choice. People always like bargains. In addition, 3511 you consider rubbish
might just be pure gold to another. Don’t be greedy by asking a high price for your item. Be sensible and
take whatever comes—after all, it is a profit. 36 you only make a small amount each month, that
extra cash is a bonus!
Next, learn some lessons from kids. Kids—and currently a fast-growing number of youngsters and
adults—love bicycles. You don’t need engineering skills to repair a bicycle. Go to pick up a cheap
bicycle or two, sand down the bodywork, use spray-paint and sell them at a reasonable price. It’s a wellknown
fact that kids will find the money to buy a shiny new bicycle, most of them by doing odd jobs.
You could learn and earn extra cash 37 their example.
You should also look for ways to 38 . Keep yourself aware of any FOR SALE ads. Purchase
only indispensable items with as many coupons as you can. Why not try calling phone companies and
negotiate the bills? You will be surprised to find how big a cut could be rewarded to you—bigger than
you can ever imagine.
Last but not least, buy a lottery ticket in the corner stand if you are still able to find yourself an
extra NT$ 50. Why? That is easy to explain. Buying life insurance and buying a lottery ticket are alike,
yet the lottery ticket is far better—it will pay out on the smallest of wins. 39 unexpectedly.
So long as more money is coming into you than is going out, things are turning fine—at least
financially speaking. The bottom line is that you need not play 40 during a bad economy. Through
hard work, self-discipline, creative thinking, and a sound plan, you can survive and beat a recession.
I wish you good luck.
【題組】39. (A) Good fortunes simply come (B) Social justice actually dies
(C) Indulgence is committed to itself (D) It always pays to make friends