.An old saying has it thathalf of all advertisingbudgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knowswhichhalf . In the internet age, at least in theory ,thisfraction can be muchreduced . By watchingwhatpeoplesearch for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at thosemostlikely to buy.
In the pastcouple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of suchfine-grainedinformation: Shouldadvertisersassumethatpeople are happy to be tracked and sentbehavioural ads? Or shouldtheyhaveexplicitpermission?
In December 2010 America's FederalTradeCornmission (FTC) proposedadding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internetbrowsers ,so thatuserscouldtelladwertisersthatthey did not want to be followed .Microsoft's InternetExplorer and Apple's Safaribothoffer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so thisyear. In February the FTC and DigltalAdwertisingAlliance (DAA) agreedthat the industrywould get cracking on responging to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It saidthatInternetExplorer 10,the version due to appearwindows 8, wouldhave DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertiserswillrespond. Geting a DNT signaldoes not obligeanyone to stoptracking, althoughsomecompanieshavepromised to do so. Unable to tellwhethersomeonereallyobjects to behavioural ads or whetherthey are stickingwithMicrosoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Alsounclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it sayswillcomplywith DNT requests, though it is stillworking out how. If it is trying to upsetGoogle, whichreliesalmostwholly on defaultwillbecome the norm. DNT does not seem an obviouslyhugesellingpoint for windows 8-though the firm has comparedsome of its otherproductsfavourablywithGoogle's on thatcountbefore. BrendonLynch, Microsoft's chiefprivacyofficer, bloggde:"we believeconsumersshouldhavemorecontrol." Could it really be thatsimple?
【題組】30. The author's attitudetowardswhatBrendonLynchsaid in his blog is one of:
(A) indulgence (B) understanding (C) appreciaction (D) skepticism
As schoolnutritionofficialsgatheredaround a conferencetable in the EisenhowerExecutiveOfficeBuilding on May 27, MichelleObama’s
trademark hug-a-strangervibe was notablyabsent. “This is unacceptable,” she saidcurtly. “It’s unacceptable to me not just as FirstLady but also
as a mother.”
What was (32) Obama was an attempt by the Republican-controlledHouse of Representatives to easeschoolnutritionstandards she
helpedpass in 2010. “The stakescouldn’t be higher on thisissue,” Obamasaid, notingthat 1 in 3 U.S. childrenwilldevelopType 2 diabetes.
“The lastthing we can afford to do right now is playpoliticswith our kids’ health.”
But in the nation’s capital, evenkids’ health can be political. In Congress, the interests of farmers and foodcompaniesregularly (33)
with the concerns of parents and the nutritionalrecommendations of the USDA. Nor is the school-lunchfight new: The standards the FirstLady
is fighting to preservehavealreadybeenweakenedoncebefore (34) food-industryopposition.
This was, to someextent, inevitable. Eversince she madeschoolmeals a signatureissueearly in the President’s firstterm, the FirstLady
has tried to joinforceswith the foodindustry on initiatives to shrinkpackagesizes and includehealthierfare on kids’ menus. In exchange, she
has moderated her criticism of junkfood and acknowledgedthatthere is nothingwrongwith the occasional (35) . (She notablyhanded out
sugar-sweetmarshmallowPeeps at the annualWhiteHouseEaster Egg Roll and has calledfrenchfries a favoritefood.)
But thattenuousalliance has been (36) as HouseRepublicans, food-industrygroups, and otherstakeholdershavepushed to allowschools to delay the new federalstandards. In 2011, Republicansheld up funding for new rules in order to extractconcessionsfavorable to the
potato and cheeseindustries. The FirstLady’s criticsalsoarguethat the rules are inflexible and fullcompliance is too costly for somedistricts.
【題組】35. (A)adventure (B)completion (C)indulgence (D)shrillness
Recessions are bad—so bad thatmanypeoplestart to feelthattheyhave 31 overtheirfinances.
Someadopt a “victim” posture. Othersrely on goodluck or the actions of others to get themthrough a
downeconomy. This is 32 . The way to survive a recession is to be strategicallyhard-working,
practical, and flexible.
Well-off people do not rely on a singlepaycheck to 33 . Theydiversifytheirincomethroughpart-timejobs. Individualstoday can adopt the “multiplestreams” modeleven on a smallscale. The
point is: Learn not to put all eggs in one 34 . It is far betterworkingpart-timethanjustsitting in
front of TV watching the reruns of Three’s Company, KnightRider or Friends. Why not offer to helphousechores, babysit or elder-sit at a reasonablehourlyrate? Or offergraphicdesign, websitedevelopment, telemarketing or secretarialservices to localbusinesses?
Anothersimple and inexpensive way to earnsomecash is to get an onlineauctionaccount. Ebay,
for example, is a finechoice. Peoplealwayslikebargains. In addition, 3511 you considerrubbishmightjust be puregold to another. Don’t be greedy by asking a highprice for youritem. Be sensible and
takewhatevercomes—after all, it is a profit. 36 you onlymake a smallamounteachmonth, thatextracash is a bonus!
Next, learnsomelessonsfromkids. Kids—and currently a fast-growingnumber of youngsters and
adults—lovebicycles. You don’t needengineeringskills to repair a bicycle. Go to pick up a cheapbicycle or two, sanddown the bodywork, use spray-paint and sellthem at a reasonableprice. It’s a wellknownfactthatkidswillfind the money to buy a shiny new bicycle, most of them by doing odd jobs.
You couldlearn and earnextracash37theirexample.
You shouldalsolook for ways to 38 . Keepyourselfaware of any FOR SALE ads. Purchaseonlyindispensableitemswith as manycoupons as you can. Why not try callingphonecompanies and
negotiate the bills? You will be surprised to find how big a cut could be rewarded to you—biggerthan
you can everimagine.
Last but not least, buy a lotteryticket in the cornerstand if you are stillable to findyourself an
extra NT$ 50. Why? That is easy to explain. Buyinglifeinsurance and buying a lotteryticket are alike,
yet the lotteryticket is far better—it will pay out on the smallest of wins. 39 unexpectedly.
So long as moremoney is cominginto you than is going out, things are turningfine—at leastfinanciallyspeaking. The bottomline is that you need not play 40 during a bad economy. Throughhardwork, self-discipline, creativethinking, and a soundplan, you can survive and beat a recession.
I wish you goodluck.
【題組】39. (A) Goodfortunessimplycome (B) Socialjusticeactuallydies (C) Indulgence is committed to itself (D) It alwayspays to makefriends