55. Whenaskedabout the power of ads, mostpeopleagreethat ads are ineffective on .
(A)individuals (B)masses (C)others (D)themPassage 2
Likemostpeople, I was brought up to lookuponlife as a process of getting. It was not until in my latethirtiesthat I madethisimportantdiscovery: givingawaymakeslife so muchmoreexciting. You need not worry if you lackmoney. This is how I experimentedwithgivingaway. If an idea for improving the windowdisplay of a neighborhoodstoreflashes to me, I step in and make the suggestion to the storekeeper. One discovery I madeaboutgivingaway is that it is almostimpossible to giveawayanything in thisworldwithoutgettingsomethingback, though the returnoftencomes in an unexpectedform. One Sundaymorning the localpostofficedelivered an importantspecialdeliveryletter to my home, though it was addressed to me at my office. I wrote the postmaster a note of appreciation. Morethan a yearlater I needed a postoffice box for a new business I was starting. I was told at the windowthattherewere no boxesleft, and that my namewouldhave to go on a longwaitinglist. AI was about to leave, the postmasterappeared in the doorway. He had overheard our conversation. “Wasn’t it you thatwrote us thatletter a year ago aboutdelivering a specialdelivery to yourhome?” I said yes. “Well, you certainly are going to have a box in thispostoffice if we have to make one for you. You don’t knowwhat a letterlikethatmeans to us. We usually get nothing but complaints.”
Training to communicateacrosscultures has longbeenpart of the preparation for executivesmovingoverseas to work. But now, the training is increasinglyimportant for employees who may neverleave the country, yet willworkcloselywithcompanies and peoplearound the world. “Whether a multinational or a start-up business out of a garage,everybody is globalthesedays,” saidDeanFoster, president of DeanFosterAssociates, an interculturalconsultancy in New York. “Intoday’s economy, there is no room for failure. Companieshavetounderstand the culturethey are working in from Day 1.” Mr. Fosterrecounted how an Americanbusinessmanrecentlygavefourantiqueclockswrapped in whitepaper to a prospectiveclientinChina. What the man did not realize, he said, was that the sounds of the words in Mandarin for clock and the numberfour are similartothesounds of the word for death, and white is a funeralcolor in manyAsiancountries. “The symbolism was so powerful,” Mr. Fostersaid,“that the man lost the deal.” The military and foreignservicehave a tradition of preparingpersonnel and theirfamilies, but the corporations “are really the newcomers,” saidAnne P. Copeland, executivedirector of the InterchangeInstitute, a research and consultingorganizationinBrookline, Massachusetts.
【題組】48. Which of the followingstatement is not inferredfrom the passage?
(A) The symbolism is verypowerful.
(B) Companieshave to understand the culturethey are workingASAP.
(C) The executive may not have to leave the country to train the
(D) Training to communicateacrosscultures has longbeenpart of
the preparation for executivesmovingoverseas to work.
One of the mostimportantsocialdevelopmentsthathelped to makepossible a shift in thinkingabout the role of publiceducation was the effect of the babyboom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depressionconditions of the 1930's, the UnitedStatesexperienced a decliningbirthrate –everythousandwomenagedfifteen to forty-fourgavebirth to about 118 livechildren in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growingprosperitybrought on by the SecondWorld War and the economicboomthatfollowed it, youngpeoplemarried and establishedhouseholdsearlier and began to raiselargerfamiliesthan had theirpredecessorsduring the Depression. Birthratesrose to 102 per thousand in 1946, 106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Althougheconomics was probably the mostimportantdeterminant, it is not the onlyexplanation for the babyboom. The increasedvalueplaced on the idea of the familyalsohelps to explainthisrise in birthrates. The babyboomersbeganstreaminginto the firstgrade by the mid-1940's and became a flood by 1950. The publicschoolsystemsuddenlyfounditselfovertaxed. While the number of schoolchildrenrosebecause of wartime and postwarconditions, thesesameconditionsmade the schoolsevenlessprepared to copewith the flood. The wartimeeconomymeantthat few new schoolswerebuiltbetween 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boomtimesthatfollowed, largenumbers of teacherslefttheirprofession for better-payingjobselsewhere in the economy.
Therefore, in the 1950's and 1960's, the babyboom hit an antiquated and inadequateschoolsystem. Consequently, the "custodialrhetoric" of the 1930's and early 1940's no longermadesense; that is, keepingyouthsagedsixteen and older out of the labormarket by keepingthem in schoolcould no longer be a highpriority for an institutionunable to findspace and staff to teachyoungerchildrenagedfive to sixteen. With the babyboom, the focus of educators and of laymeninterested in educationinevitablyturnedtoward the lowergrades and back to basicacademicskills and discipline. The system no longer had muchinterest in offeringnontraditional, new, and extraservices to olderyouths. 【題組】According to the passage, why did teachersleave the teachingprofessionafter the outbreak of the
(A) Theyneeded to be retrained.
(B) Theyweredissatisfiedwith the curriculum.