III. ContextualFilling: 10%
The new realism, in contrast to the old, begins by proposing a solution to the problem of
distinguishingfactorsinternal to internationalpoliticalsystemsfromthosethat are external.
Theoryisolates one realmfromothers in order to dealwith it intellectually. By depicting an
internationalpoliticalsystem as a whole, withstructural and unitlevels at oncedistinct and
connected, neorealismestablishes the ___(31)____ of internationalpolitics and thusmakes a
theorypossible. Neorealismdevelops the concept of a system’s structurewhich at once
___(32)____ the domainthatstudents of internationalpoliticsdealwith and enablesthem to see
how the structure of the systemaffect the interactingunits and the outcomestheyproduce.
The concept of structure is based on the factthatunitsdifferentlyjuxtaposed and combinedbehavedifferently and ___(33)___ producedifferentoutcomes. Internationalstructures are
defined, first, by the orderingprinciple of the system, in our caseanarchy, and second, by the
distribution of capabilitiesacrossunits. In an anarchicrealm, structures are defined in terms of
theirmajorunits. Internationalstructuresvarywithsignificantchanges in the number of greatpowers. Greatpowers are marked off fromothers by the combinedcapabilitiesthey __(34)____.
Whentheirnumberchanges ___(35)____, the calculations and behaviors of states, and the
The ideathatinternationalpolitics can be thought of as a systemwith a preciselydefinedstructure is neorealism’s fundamentaldeparturefromtraditionalrealism. The sparseness of the
definition of internationalstructure has attractedcriticism. RobertKeohaneassertsthatneorealisttheory “can be modifiedprogressively to attaincloser ___(36)____ withreality.” In
the mostsensitive and insightfulessay on neorealismthat I haveread, BarryBuzanaskswhether the logic of neorealismcompletelycaptures “the mainfeatures of the internationalpoliticalsystem.” He answersthis way:
“The criticisms of Ruggie, Keohane, and otherssuggestthat it does not, becausetheirconcernswithfactorssuch as dynamicdensity, informationrichness, communicationfacilities,
and ___(37)____ do not obviously fit intoWaltz’s ___(38)____ ‘systemic’ theory.”
The “factors” mentioned by Buzanwould not fit into any theory. Can one imagine how
demographictrends, informationrichness and internationalinstitutionscould be throwninto a
theory? No theory can containthese “factors,” but if a theory is any good, it helps us to
understand and explainthem, to estimatetheirsignificance and to gaugetheireffects. Moreover,
To achieve “closeness of fit” would ___(39)____ theory. A theorycannot fit the facts or
correspondwith the events it seeks to explain. The ultimatecloseness of fit would be achieved
by writing a finelydetaileddescription of the worldthatinterests us. Nevertheless, neorealismcontinues to be criticized for its omissions. A theory can be writtenonly by leaving out mostmattersthat are of practicalinterest. To believethatlisting the omissions of a theory
____(40)___ a validcriticism is to misconstrue the theoreticalenterprise.
(AB). as such
(DE). in interacting
(ABC). in retrospect