Animal studies confirm that the relief some of us get from eating sugar is not just psychological—it is an actual brain-chemistry reaction. In one experiment, Blass and colleagues studied two groups of baby mice who were separated from their mothers and left alone for six minutes. Their resulting “isolation distress” was considered to be a kind of animal equivalent to our human version of depression. The depressed mice who were given sugar water cried only seventy-five times during their isolation—as compared to the more than three hundred cries that came from the mice left 
alone with no sweet treat to alleviate their emotional pain. Apparently, the young mice were literally “medicating” their depression with sugar. 
        Why did sugar have this remarkable effect? Researchers thought that perhaps the sweet food stimulated the release of extra beta-endorphin molecules. Since these molecules help us cope with physical and emotional pain, the sugar had a literally soothing effect. Researchers confirmed their theory by giving both groups of mice Naltrexone, a drug that blocks beta-endorphin receptors. If you take Naltrexone, it does not matter how many beta-endorphins you release—you will not get any relief from pain. Sure enough, when the sugar-fed mice were given Naltrexone, they lost all interest in the sweet substance, suggesting that their only reason for their sweet tooth had been to stimulate the release of beta-endorphins. 
        Numbed by Naltrexone, both groups of mice cried equally often. The poor baby mice were still depressed—but now even sugar could not make them feel better. 

【題組】8.According to the article, why does sugar have a soothing effect?
(A)Sweet food can block beta-endorphin receptors.
(B)Sweet food can numb the mice so that they feel no pain.
(C)Sweet food can stimulate the release of beta-endorphins, which help alleviate physical and emotional pain.
(D)Sweet food can stimulate the release of Naltrexone, which helps alleviate physical and emotional pain.
RedSky 高一下 (2016/12/01)
  Researchers though☆ ☆☆☆☆ ...

Reading 4 
The power to counter physical fatigue and increase alertness is part of the reason caffeine ranks as the world’s most popular mood-altering drug. It is found not only in energy drinks, coffee and tea, but also in diet pills and pain relievers. Many societies around the world have also created entire rituals around the use of caffeine, for example, afternoon tea in the U.K., the café culture of France, and tea ceremony in Japan. But is caffeine really good for us? Health risks have been tied to caffeine consumption. Over the years, studies have attributed higher rates of certain types of cancer and bone disease to caffeine consumption. To date, however, there is no definitive proof that caffeine actually causes these diseases. A number of scientists believe that regular caffeine use causes physical dependence. Heavy caffeine users exhibit similar behaviors; their moods fluctuate from high to low; they get mild to severe headaches; or they feel lethargic when they can’t have a coffee, an energy drink or a cup of tea. To minimize these feelings, users must consume caffeine—a behavior that is characteristic of drug addiction. Despite the concerns, the general opinion is that caffeine is not dangerous when consumed moderately. A lot of current research contradicts long-held negative beliefs about caffeine and suggests that it may, in fact, have health benefits. For instance, studies have shown that caffeine can help ease pain by reducing muscle inflammation. Because it is a stimulant, caffeine can also help improve one’s mood. Research has also shown that some caffeinated drinks—specifically certain tea—have disease-fighting chemicals that can help the body fight a number of illnesses, including certain types of cancer. In addition, as a type of mental stimulant, caffeine increases alertness, memory and reaction speed. Because it fights fatigue, it facilitates performance on tasks. While it is true that caffeine can increase blood pressure, the effect is usually temporary and therefore not likely to cause heart trouble—especially if caffeine is consumed in moderation. Despite its nearly universal use, caffeine has rarely been abused. The effects of caffeine on behavior are real, but most often they are mild. Getting a burst of energy, of course, is why many of the most popular drinks on earth contain caffeine.

【題組】37. Which of the following is NOT a side effect of caffeine intake?
(A) Numb limbs.
(B) Addiction.
(C) Headache.
(D) Mood swings.

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13. Women’s confinement to their home and dependence on personal servants for their every need left them powerless and ______ to their husbands and other males in the family.
(A) numb
(B) exclusive
(C) risky
(D) reluctant
(E) subservient

Staring for too long at tiny screens on iPhones can bring about depression, a top psychologist has claimed.

Cary Cooper, Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health at Lancaster University, warned users to limit their phone time as it can “numb the senses”.

He said: “Staring at screens constantly takes you away from people and gives you a passive outlet where you don’t have to interact with the world or face your problems.

Like television, the light draws you in and numbs your senses. It’s the exercise equivalent of treading water and can be both addictive and destructive in the way it occupies your mind without actually stimulating it.”

Experts in Sweden agree that gadgets can contribute to prolonged stress, sleep disturbances and depression.

And a survey by pharmaceutical firm Bayer found that 28 percent of women blamed smart phones such as iPhones and BlackBerrys for ruining their sex lives.

Obsessively checking Facebook and emails can lead to similar problems. Prof Cooper said: “Computer technologies can be addictive because they’re psychoactive — they alter mood and often trigger enjoyable feelings.” Email, in particular, gives us satisfaction due to what psychologists call variable ratio reinforcement. That is, we never know when we’ll get a satisfying email, text or social media message, so we keep checking, over and over again. “It’s like slot machines — we’re seeking that pleasurable hit.”

But he warned: “Being subjected to constant data smog or information overload presents the real risk of ignoring or forgetting the information you do need and being less in control of your life as a result.

Like using the elevator rather than the stairs simply because it seems easier, not using your brain to perform key cognitive and social functions can have a huge impact on emotional health.”

【題組】66. Since computer technologies are “psychoactive,” they are able to .
(A) numb the senses
(B) prolong stress
(C) damage health
(D) change the mood
10. 欲利用 FTP 傳輸檔案而進入該網址後,通常會要求使用者輸入
(A)ID and Password
(B)ID and PDL
(C)User and numb er
(D)DNS and PDF。