Researchers in the field of psychologyhavefoundthat one of the bestways to make an importantdecision, such as choosing a university to attend or a business to invest in, involves the utilization of a decisionworksheet. Psychologists who studyoptimizationcompare the actualdecisionsmade by people to theoreticalidealdecisions to see how similarthey are. Proponents of the worksheetprocedurebelievethat it willyieldoptimal, that is , the bestdecisions. Althoughthere are severalvariations on the exactformatthatworksheets can take, they are all similar in theiressentialaspects. Worksheetsrequiredefining the problem in a clear and concise way and thenlisting all possiblesolutions to the problem. Next, the pertinentconsiderationsthatwill be affected by eachdecision are listed, and the relativeimportance of eachconsideration or consequence is determined. Eachconsideration is assigned a numericalvalue to reflect its relativeimportance. A decision is mathematicallycalculated by addingthesevaluestogether. The alternativewith the highestnumber of pointsemerges as the bestdecision.
Sincemostimportantproblems are multifaceted, there are severalalternatives to choosefrom, eachwithuniqueadvantages and disadvantages. One of the benefits of a pencil and paperdecision-makingprocedure is that it permitspeople to dealwithmorevariablesthantheirminds can generallycomprehend and remember. On the average, people can keepaboutsevenideas in theirminds at once. A worksheet can be especiallyusefulwhen the decisioninvolves a largenumber of variableswithcomplexrelationships. A realisticexample for manycollegestudents is the question "Whatsill I do aftergraduation?" A graduatemightseek a positionthatoffersspecializedtraining, pursue an advanceddegree, or travelabroad for a year.
A decision-makingworksheetbeginswith a succinctstatement of the problemthatwillalsohelp to narrow it. It is important to be clearabout the distinctionbetweenlong-range and immediategoalsbecauselong-rangegoalsofteninvolve a differentdecisionthanshort-rangeones. Focusing on long-rangegoals, a graduatingstudentmightrevise the questionabove to "Whatwill I do aftergraduationthatwilllead to successfulcareer?"
【題組】37. Of the followingsteps, whichoccursbefore the others in making a decisionworksheet?
(A) Listing the consequences of eachsolution (B) Calculating a numericalsummary of eachsolution (C) Decidingwhichconsequences are mostimportant (D) Writingdown all possiblesolutions