Everybodyloves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learnthat a colleague has beengiven a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you mighteven be outraged. Suchbehaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlyingassumptionthatotheranimalswould not be capable of thisfinelydevelopedsense of grievance. But a study by SarahBrosnan and Frans de Waal of EmoryUniversity in Atlanta, Georgia, which has justbeenpublished in Nature, suggeststhat it is all too monkey, as well.
The researchersstudied the behaviour of femalebrowncapuchinmonkeys. Theylookcute. They are good-natured, co-operativecreatures, and theysharetheirfoodreadily. Above all, liketheirfemalehumancounterparts, theytend to pay muchcloserattention to the value of “goods and services” thanmales.
Suchcharacteristicsmakethemperfectcandidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study. The researchersspent two yearsteachingtheirmonkeys to exchangetokens for food. Normally, the monkeyswerehappyenough to exchangepieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeyswereplaced in separate but adjoiningchambers, so thateachcouldobservewhat the other was getting in return for its rock, theirbehaviourbecamemarkedlydifferent.
In the world of capuchins, grapes are luxurygoods (and muchpreferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to handhersover for a merepiece of cucumber. And if one received a grapewithouthaving to provide her token in exchange at all, the othereithertossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the merepresence of a grape in the otherchamber (without an actualmonkey to eat it) was enough to induceresentment in a femalecapuchin.
The researcherssuggestthatcapuchinmonkeys, likehumans, are guided by socialemotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-livingspecies. Such co-operation is likely to be stableonlywheneachanimalfeels it is not beingcheated. Feelings of righteousindignation, it seems, are not the preserve of peoplealone. Refusing a lesserrewardcompletelymakesthesefeelingsabundantlyclear to othermembers of the group. However, whethersuch a sense of fairnessevolvedindependently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stemsfrom the commonancestorthat the species had 35 millionyears ago, is, as yet, an unansweredquestion. 【題組】24.Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waalhaveeventuallyfound in theirstudythat the monkeys ________.
(A) prefergrapes to cucumbers (B) can be taught to exchangethings (C) will not be co-operative if feelingcheated (D) are unhappywhenseparatedfromothers
I firstwent to Harrow in the summerterm. The school had the biggestswimmingpool I had everseen. It was a goodjoke to come up behind a naked boy, and push him into the pool. I madequite a habit of thiswithboys of my own size or less.
One day I saw a boy wrapped in a towel on the side of the pool. He was no biggerthan I was, so I thought him a fairgame. Comingsecretlybehind,I pushed him in, holding on to his towel so that it would not get wet, I was surprised to see an angryfacecome out from the water, and a being of greatstrengthmasking its way by facestrokes (猛力地划)to the shore. I fled, but in vain. He overtok me, seized me violently, and threw me into the deepestpart of therpool. I soonclimbed out on the otherside, and foundmyselfsurrounded by a crowd of youngerboys.“Do you knowwhat you havedone?”theysaid,“It’s Amery; he is in Grade Six. He is champion at gym,he has got his footballhonor.”
I was frightened and feltashamed. How could I tell his positionwhen be was wrapped in a bathtowel and so small.”He didn’t seempleased at all, so I added in a mostbrilliantword,“My father, who is a great man, is alsosmall.”At this be laughed, and aftersomegeneralwordsabout my rudebehavior and how I had better be careful in the future, signified the incident was closed.
【題組】59.Which of the following is TRUE?
(A)The writercould run fasterthanAmery.
(B)The writerlikedplaying on boys of all sizes.
(C)Amery was a student in GradeFour.
(D)Ameryforgave the writer for his rudebehavior.
Read the advertisementscarefully. Thenanswer the questionsthatfollow.
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