Tulips are Old World, rather than New World, plants, with the origins of the species
lying in Central Asia. They became an integral part of the gardens of the Ottoman Empire
from the sixteenth century onward, and, soon after, part of European life as well. Holland,
Line in particular, became famous for its cultivation of the flower.
(5) A tenuous line marked the advance of the tulip to the New World, where it was
unknown in the wild. The first Dutch colonies in North America had been established
in New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company in 1624, and one individual who
settled in New Amsterdam (today's Manhattan section of New York City) in 1642
described the flowers that bravely colonized the settlers' gardens. They were the same
(10) flowers seen in Dutch still-life paintings of the time: crown imperials, roses, carnations,
and of course tulips. They flourished in Pennsylvania too, where in 1698 William Penn
received a report of John Tateham's "Great and Stately Palace," its garden full of tulips.
By 1760, Boston newspapers were advertising 50 different kinds of mixed tulip "roots."
But the length of the journey between Europe and North America created many
(15) difficulties. Thomas Hancock, an English settler, wrote thanking his plant supplier for
a gift of some tulip bulbs from England, but his letter the following year grumbled that
they were all dead.
Tulips arrived in Holland, Michigan, with a later wave of early nineteenth-century
Dutch immigrants who quickly colonized the plains of Michigan. Together with many
(20) other Dutch settlements, such as the one at Pella. Iowa, they established a regular demand
for European plants. The demand was bravely met by a new kind of tulip entrepreneur, the
traveling salesperson. One Dutchman, Hendrick van der Schoot, spent six months in 1849
traveling through the United States taking orders for tulip bulbs. While tulip bulbs were
traveling from Europe to the United States to satisfy the nostalgic longings of homesick
(25) English and Dutch settlers, North American plants were traveling in the opposite
direction. In England, the enthusiasm for American plants was one reason why tulips
dropped out of fashion in the gardens of the rich and famous.
【題組】31. The word "integral" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
You are visiting a European capital and you would like to take in some of the sights. But you are not so 6 on
shelling out for an expensive tourist bus to be assailed by a loud commentary. So why not try public transport? It is
cheap, it is fun to sit among the locals, and certain bus and tram routes are so 7 that they could have been set
specifically with sightseers in mind.
For example, in Berlin, you can journey through recent German history on the No. 100 double-decker bus as it
crosses from the former West Berlin to what was once East Berlin. 8 it at the zoo. Then look for the
bomb-damaged Kaiser Wilhelm Church tower, which stands as a 9 of the horrors of war. After passing the
House of World Cultures, known by locals as the Pregnant Oyster, the bus approaches the Reichstag with a huge
glass dome that sits over the plenary hall.
Passing the Brandenburg Gate, you travel on Unter den Linden boulevard with its elegant 18th century
buildings, which contrast sharply with the 10 East bloc architecture of Alexanderplatz, the final stop. Journey
time: about 30 minutes.
【題組】7 (A)decorative (B)dramatic (C)ornamental (D)scenic
10. Pines are trees in the genus Pinus in the family Pinaceae. Certain pine trees are
deliberately dwarfed for ornamental purposes and are well-loved during the Christmas
(A) decorative (B) diverse (C) constructive
(D) versatile (E) medicinal
II. Grammar and Structure
Part I: Choose the letter of the underlined part that is NOT correct in usage.
Of all the accessories and adornments to garments one perhaps pays least of all attention to buttons. Functional and often
unexciting, replaced by zip fasteners or hooks and eyes there is, one would think, nothing much to be said about the humble
Yet it is very probable that buttons started life as ornaments; certainly it is not known that they had any practical function
until the 13th century. By the 14th century buttons were once again ornamental, often lavishly so, to such an extent that it was by
no means uncommon for a person of wealth and consequence to have as many as 300 buttons on a single article of dress.
Unimaginable as it seems today, sewing superfluous buttons on clothes became a craze—not one that seems harmful to us
though some Italians took a different view and a law against buttons was enforced in Florence. No buttons were to be worn on
the upper arms; penalty for disobedience—a sound whipping. (How often this had to be carried out, history does not relate!)
Most of the buttons on modern clothes which could be called decorative once did in fact serve a useful purpose. Buttons on
boots are one good example. Sleeve buttons on men’s coats are a reminder of the days when the fashion was for wearing shirts
with frilly lace cuffs.
On the tails of a modern tail coat there are indeed buttons which are purely ornamental but in earlier days horsemen used
these buttons to keep the tails out of harm’s way.
With regard to the side on which clothes are buttoned, originally both male and female dress was buttoned on the left hand
side. Changes came when men had to have access to their swords.
So perhaps it is worth taking a look at buttons.
【題組】32. Buttons on the tails of a modern tail coat ______.
(A) were always purely ornamental
(B) were used to keep the horse’s tail out of the way
(C) are now only used by horsemen to stop their tails being harmed
(D) were once useful to horsemen