The decision of the New YorkPhilharmonic to hireAlanGilbert as its nextmusicdirector has been the talk of the classical-musicworldeversince the suddenannouncement of his appointment in 2009. For the mostpart, the response has beenfavorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wroteAnthonyTommasini, a sober-sidedclassical-musiccritic.
One of the reasons why the appointmentcame as such a surprise, however, is thatGilbert is comparativelylittleknown. EvenTommasini, who had advocatedGilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentiousmusicianwith no air of the formidableconductorabout him.” As a description of the nextmusicdirector of an orchestrathat has hithertobeen led by musicianslikeGustavMahler and PierreBoulez, thatseemslikely to havestruck at leastsomeTimesreaders as faintpraise.
For my part, I have no ideawhetherGilbert is a greatconductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressivevariety of interestingcompositions, but it is not necessary for me to visitAveryFisherHall, or anywhereelse, to hearinterestingorchestralmusic. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and downloadstillmorerecordedmusicfromiTunes.
Devotedconcertgoers who replythatrecordings are no substitute for liveperformance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-lovingpublic, classicalinstrumentalistsmustcompete not onlywithoperahouses, dancetroupes, theatercompanies, and museums, but alsowith the recordedperformances of the greatclassicalmusicians of the 20th century. Thererecordings are cheap, availableeverywhere, and veryoftenmuchhigher in artisticqualitythantoday’s liveperformances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespreadavailability of suchrecordings has thusbroughtabout a crisis in the institution of the traditionalclassicalconcert.
One possibleresponse is for classicalperformers to programattractive new musicthat is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has beenwidelynoted: AlexRoss, a classical-musiccritic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonicinto “a markedlydifferent, morevibrantorganization.” But whatwill be the nature of thatdifference? Merelyexpanding the orchestra’s repertoirewill not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, theymustfirstchange the relationshipbetweenAmerica’s oldestorchestra and the new audience it hops to attract. 【題組】23. The authorbelievesthat the devotedconcertgoers (A)ignore the expenses of liveperformances.
(B)rejectmostkinds of recordedperformances.
(C)exaggerate the variety of liveperformances.
(D)overestimate the value of liveperformances.
A studyinvolving 8,500 teenagersfrom all socialbackgroundsfoundthaimost of them are ignoraniwhen it comes to money. The findings, the first in a scries of reportsfromNatWeslthat has started a five-yearresearchprojectintoteenagers and money, arc particularlyworrying as thisgeneration of youngpeople is likely to be burdenedwithgreaterdebts man any before.
Universitytuitionfees (学费) are currentlycapped at £3,000 annually, but thiswill be reviewednextyear and the Government is underenormouspressure to raise the ceiling.
In the research, the teenagerswerepresentedwith die terms of fourdifferentloans but 76 per centfailed to identify the cheapest. The youngpeoplealsopredictedthattheywould be earning on average £ 31.000 by the age of 25, although the averagesalary for thoseaged 22 to 29 is just £ 17,815. The teenagersexpected to be in debtwhentheyfinisheduniversity or training, althoughhalfsaidthattheyassumed the debtswould be lessthan £ 10.000. (A)veragedebts for graduates are £ 12，363.
StephenMoir, head of communityinvestment at the Royal (B)ank of ScotlandGroupwhichownsNatWest, said. "The moreexposedyoungpeople are to financialissues, and the youngertheybecomeaware of them, the morelikelythey arc to becomeresponsible, forward-planningadults who managetheirfinancesconfidently and effectively."
Ministers are deeplyconcernedabout the financialpressures on teenagers and youngpeoplebecause of studentloans and risinghousingcosts. Theyhavejustintroduced new lessons in how to managedebts. NikkiFairweathcr. aged 15. from St Helens, saidthat she had benefitedfromlessons on personalfinance, but admittedthai she still had a lot to learnaboutmoney. 【題組】72.Which of the following can be foundfrom the five-yearresearchproject?
(B). Universitytuitionfees in (E)nglandhavebeenrising.
(C). Teenagerstend to overestimatetheirfutureearnings.
(D). The students' paybackability has become a majorissue.
Feathercloaks are the mostspectacular of all objects of nativeHawaiianmanufacture. In the
highlystratifiedsociety of the islandsbeforetheirdiscovery by CaptainJamesCook in 1788, the
cloakswerevisualsymbols of power and prestige, wornonly by rankingmalechiefs on stateoccasions and in battle. Theywereneververynumerous, but powerfulchiefsoftenacquiredseveralthroughinheritance or as battleprizes.
Although the feathersweregathered by the commonpeople to defraypart of theirtaxes and
womenwerepermitted to clean and sortthem, only men of highrank, surrounded by sacredtaboos, wereallowed to make the cloaks. The manufacturingprocessinvolvedtyingsmallbunches of red, yellow, green, or blackfeatherswitholonafiber. Largecloakslike the royalrobeworn by Kamehameha I, the firstking of all the islands, requiredsomehalf-millionfeathers.
Todaythesecloaks are ethnologicaltreasures, but to the earlyshipcaptaintheywerelittlemorethanseeminglyplentifulcuriositiesthat the Hawaiianshighlyvalued but gaveaway or
traded for suchtrifles as ironknives. In turn, the Europeanstradedthesecuriosities. ThispracticebeganwithCook’s officers, who traded the cloak in Leningrad in exchange for provisions.
In 1825, LordByron, commander of the BritishshipBlonde, predictedthat “the splendid
war-cloak” wouldsoon be moreeasilyfound in Europethan in Hawaii. Brighamfoundonlyfive
in Hawaiiwhen he made his featherworksurvey in 1899. Todaytwenty of the fiftyknowncloaks
are still in the BritishIsles. 【題組】
46.The earlyshipcaptains who visitedHawaiiwere _______.
(A) aware of the historical and culturalsignificance of the feathercloaks (B) convinced of the usefulness of the feathercloaks (C) inclined to overestimate the availability of the feathercloaks (D) curiousaboutwhat the nativethought of the feathercloaks