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Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. We all know that DNA has the ability to identify individuals but, because it is inherited, there are also regions of the DNA strand which can relate an individual to his or her family (immediate and extended), tribal group and even an entire population. Molecular Genealogy (宗谱学) can use this unique identification provided by the genetic markers to link people together into family trees. Pedigrees (家谱) based on such genetic markers can mean a breakthrough for family trees where information is incomplete or missing due to adoption, illegitimacy or lack of records. There are many communities and populations which have lost precious records due to tragic events such as the fire in the Irish courts during Civil War in 1921 or American slaves for whom many records were never kept in the first place. The main objective of the Molecular Genealogy Research Group is to build a database containing over 100,000 DNA samples from individuals all over the world. These individuals will have provided a pedigree chart of at least four generations and a small blood sample. Once the database has enough samples to represent the world genetic make-up, it will eventually help in solving many issues regarding genealogies that could not be done by relying only on traditional written records. Theoretically, any individual will someday be able to trace his or her family origins through this database. In the meantime, as the database is being created, molecular genealogy can already verify possible or suspected relationships between individuals. “For example, if two men sharing the same last name believe that they are related, but no written record proves this relationship, we can verify this possibility by collecting a sample of DNA from both and looking for common markers (in this case we can look primarily at the Y chromosome (染色体)),” explains Ugo A. Perego, a member of the BYU Molecular Genealogy research team.
【題組】28. The Molecular Genealogy Research Group is building a database for the purpose of .
(A) offering assistance in working out genealogy-related problems
(B) solving many issues without relying on traditional written records
(C) providing a pedigree chart of at least four generations in the world
(D) confirming the assumption that all individuals are of the same origin
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答案:A
難度:適中
26 Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. We all know that DNA has the ability to identify individuals but, because it is inherited, there are also regions of the DNA strand which can relate an individual to his or her family (immediate and extended), tribal group and even an entire population. Molecular Genealogy (宗谱学) can use this unique identification provided by the genetic markers to link people together into family trees. Pedigrees (家谱) based on such genetic markers can mean a breakthrough for family trees where information is incomplete or missing due to adoption, illegitimacy or lack of records. There are many communities and populations which have lost precious records due to tragic events such as the fire in the Irish courts during Civil War in 1921 or American slaves for whom many records were never kept in the first place. The main objective of the Molecular Genealogy Research Group is to build a database containing over 100,000 DNA samples from individuals all over the world. These individuals will have provided a pedigree chart of at least four generations and a small blood sample. Once the database has enough samples to represent the world genetic make-up, it will eventually help in solving many issues regarding genealogies that could not be done by relying only on traditional written records. Theoretically, any individual will someday be able to trace his or her family origins through this database. In the meantime, as the database is being created, molecular genealogy can already verify possible or suspected relationships between individuals. “For example, if two men sharing the same last name believe that they are related, but no written record proves this relationship, we can verify this possibility by collecting a sample of DNA from both and looking for common markers (in this case we can look primarily at the Y chromosome (染色体)),” explains Ugo A. Perego, a member of the BYU Molecular Genealogy research team. . People in a large area may possess the same DNA thread because .
(A) DNA is characteristic of a region
(B) they are beyond doubt of common ancestry
(C) DNA strand has the ability to identify individuals
(D) their unique identification can be provided via DNA
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答案:B
難度:適中
28. The Molecular Genealogy Research Group is building a database for the purpose of .
(A) offering assistance in working out genealogy-related problems
(B) solving many issues without relying on traditional written records
(C) providing a pedigree chart of at least four generations in the world
(D) confirming the assumption that all individuals are of the same origin
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答案:A
難度:適中
5. 對於人類遺傳疾病研究,因人類世代長、子代不多且無法控制婚配對象,常利用 譜系分析 (pedigree analysis)進行,根據右圖譜系分析推測,下列何者正確? 

(A) 此為性聯隱性遺傳
(B) 此為性聯顯性遺傳
(C) 此遺傳疾病可能為母系遺傳
(D) 子女的性狀與父親相同
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答案:C
難度:適中
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65 63 歲的王女士有糖尿病腎病變,其家系圖(pedigree)及病人自填的家庭圈(family circle)如下圖。 王女士最近因急性腎衰竭併急性呼吸窘迫症候群,住進加護病房並接受氣管插管,經近一週的治療, 病情並無明顯改善,必須執行氣管造口術(tracheostomy),醫護人員告知王女士及家屬氣管造口術 的需要性。雖然王女士無法說話,但意識清楚,一直搖頭拒絕氣管造口術,除了醫護人員的努力之 外,您會認為請那一位家屬去說服最合適?  
(A)先生
(B)大兒子
(C)二兒子
(D)二女兒
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答案:C
難度:簡單