In 1924 American’ National Research Council sent to engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lignting__1__workers productivity. Instead, the studies ended __2___giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect”, the extremely influential idea that the very___3____to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior.
The idea arose because of the __4____behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to __5____of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6____what was done in the experiment; ___7_someting was changed ,productivity rose. A(n)___8___that they were being experimented upon seemed to be ____9___to alter workers’ behavior ____10____itself.
After several decades, the same data were _11__ to econometric the analysis. Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store _12 __the descriptions on record, no systematic _13__ was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting.
It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to__ 14__ interpretation of what happed.__ 15___ , lighting was always changed on a Sunday .When work started again on Monday, output __16___ rose compared with the previous Saturday and__ 17 __to rise for the next couple of days.__ 18__ , a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers__ 19__ to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case , before __20 __a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged” Hawthorne effect “ is hard to pin down.