Seventeenth-centuryhouses in colonialNorthAmericaweresimplestructuresthatwereprimarilyfunctionalcarryingovertraditionaldesignsthatwentback to the MiddleAges. During the firsthalf of the eighteenthcentury, however, housesbegan to show a new elegance. As wealthincreased, more and morecolonistsbuiltfinehouses.
Sincearchitecture was not yet a specializedprofession in the colonies, the design of buildings was lefteither to amateurdesigners or to carpenters who undertook to interpretarchitecturalmanualsimportedfromEngland. Inventories of coloniallibrariesshow an astonishingnumber of thesehandbooks for builders, and the houseserectedduring the eighteenthcenturyshowtheirinfluence. Nevertheless, mostdomesticarchitecture of the firstthree-quarters of the eighteenthcenturydisplays a widedivergence of taste and freedom of application of the ruleslaiddown in thesebooks.
Increasingwealth and growingsophisticationthroughout the coloniesresulted in houses of improveddesign, whether the material was wood, stone, or brick. New Englandstillfavoredwood, thoughbrickhousesbecamecommon in Boston and othertowns, where the danger of firegave an impetus to the use of moredurablematerial. A few houses in New Englandwerebuilt of stone, but only in Pennsylvania and adjacentareas was stonewidelyused in dwellings. An increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is noticeable in Virginia and Maryland, but woodremainedthatmostpopularmaterialeven in housesbuilt by wealthylandowners. In the Carolinas, even in closelypackedCharleston, woodenhousesweremuchmorecommonthanbrickhouses.
Eighteenth-centuryhousesshowedgreatinteriorimprovementsovertheirpredecessors. Windowsweremadelarger and shuttersremoved. Large, clearpanesreplaced the smallleadedglass of the seventeenthcentury. Doorwayswerelarger and moredecorative. Fireplacesbecamedecorativefeatures of rooms. Wallsweremade of plaster or wood, sometimeselaboratelypaneled. Whitepaintbegan to take the place of blues, yellows, greens, and leadcolors, which had beenpopular for walls in the earlieryears. Afterabout 1730, advertisements for wallpaperstyles in scenicpatternsbegan to appear in colonialnewspapers.
【題組】41. The authormentionselaboratelypaneledwalls in line 26 as an example of
(A) how the interiordesign of colonialhouses was improved.
(B) why wallsweremade of wood or plaster.
(C) How wallsweremadestronger in the eighteenthcentury.
(D) Whatkind of wood was used for wallsafter 1730.