49、他的油畫作品《阿諾菲尼夫婦》﹝Portrait of Arnolfini and his Wife﹞繪畫技巧相當傑出，能保持法蘭德斯﹝Flemish﹞的特色。他也發明了一種完善的油彩溶劑，使畫作能將燦爛的色彩保存到現在而不退色。以上的敘述指的是那一位西洋畫家？
(A)波希﹝Hieronymus Bosch﹞﹝1450 ~ 1516﹞
(B)揚•范•艾克﹝Jan van Eyck﹞﹝1395 ~ 1441﹞
(C)喬托﹝Giotto di Bondone﹞﹝1267 ~ 1337﹞
(D)貝利尼﹝Jacopo Bellini﹞﹝1400 ~ 1470﹞。
揚‧范‧艾克﹝Jan van Eyck﹞﹝1395 ~ 1441﹞─《阿諾菲尼夫婦》﹝Portrait of Arnolfini and his Wife﹞
What we today call America folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday "folks" who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits. Citizens of prosperous, essentially middle-class republics—whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans—have always shown a marked taste for portraiture. Starting in the late eighteenth century, the United States contained increasing numbers of such people, and of the artists how could meet their demands.
The earliest American folk art portraits come, not surprisingly, from New England—especially Connecticut and Massachusetts—for this was a wealthy and populous region and the center of a strong craft tradition. Within a few decades after the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the population was pushing westward, and portrait painters could be found at work in western New York, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Midway through its first century as a nation, the United States' population had increased roughly five times, and eleven new states had been added to the original thirteen. During these years the demand for portraits grew and grew, eventually to be satisfied by the camera. In 1839 the daguerreotype was introduced to America, ushering in the age of photography, and within a generation the new invention put an end to the popularity of painted portraits. Once again an original portrait became a luxury, commissioned by the wealthy and executed by the professional.
But in the heyday of portrait painting—from the late eighteenth century until the 1850's—anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner, as such a portraitist was called. Local craftspeople—sign, coach, and house painters—began to paint portraits as a profitable sideline; sometimes a talented man or woman who began by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests for portraits; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait painting. 【題組】44. The relationship between the daguerreotype (2nd paragraph line 16) and the painted portrait is
similar to the relationship between the automobile and the _________.
(A) horse-drawn carriage (B) driver (C) highway (D) engine
In many western cultures, people believe that “seven” is a lucky number, but in Chinese communities around the world, “eight” is considered the most fortuitous of numbers, _____16_____ it much coveted for addresses, phone numbers and bank accounts. Number “eight” sounds very similar _____17_____ the Chinese word for “being rich and having a lot of money”. The Chinese feel that “eight” portends not only prosperity _____18_____ confidence and money worth even millions. Most Chinese also try their very best to _____19_____ numbers which make them think of things that have bad luck. For _____20_____ , some Chinese do not like the number “four” because it sounds like the Chinese word for “death”. The number eight doesn't have the same appeal to the Japanese or Koreans—whose cultures have been influenced by the Chinese—but all three cultures are united in their avoidance of the number four.
【題組】20、 (A)illustration (B)portrait (C)instance (D)demonstration