68．Ireland has had a very difficult history. The problems started in the 16th century when English rulers tried to conquer(征服) Ireland. For hundreds of years, the Irish people fought against the English. Finally, in 1921, the British government was forced to give independence to the south of Ireland. The result is that today there are two “Irelands”. Northern Ireland, in the north, is part of the United Kingdom. The Republic of Ireland, in the south, is an independent country.
In the 1840s the main crop, potatoes, was affected by disease and about 750,000 people died of hunger. This, and a shortage (短缺) of work , forced many people to leave Ireland and live in the USA, the UK, Australia and Canada. As a result of these problems, the population fell from 8.2 million in 1841 to 6.6 million in 1851.
For many years, the majority of Irish people earned their living as farmers. Today, many people still work on the land but more and more people are moving to the cities to work in factories and offices. Life in the cities is very different from life in the countryside, where things move at a quieter and slower pace.
The Irish are famous for being warm-hearted and friendly, Oscar Wilde, a famous Irish writer, once said that the Irish were “the greatest talkers since the Greeks”, Since independence, Ireland has revived(复兴) its own culture of music, language, literature and singing. Different areas have different styles of old Irish songs which are sung without instruments. Other kinds of Irish music use many different instruments such as the violin, whistles, etc.
What does the author tell us in paragraph 1?
(A)．How the Irish fought against the English.
(B)．How Ireland gained independence.
(C)．How English rulers tried to conquer Ireland.
(D)．How two ”Irelands” came into being.
72. A rainforest is an area covered by tall trees with thetotal high rainfall spreading quite equally through theyear and the temperature rarely dipping below l6℃.Rainforests have a great effect on the worldenvironment because they can take in heat from thesun and adjust the climate. Without the forestcover，these areas would reflect more heat into theatmosphere，warming the rest of the world. Losingthe rainforests may also influence wind and rainfallpatterns，potentially causing certain naturaldisasters all over the world.
In the past hundred years，humans have begun destroying rainforests in search of three majorresources(资源)：land for crops，wood for paper and other products，land for raising farmanimals. This action affects the environment as a whole. For example，a lot of carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)in the air comes from burning the rainforests. People obviously have a need for theresources we gain from cutting trees but we will suffer much more than we will benefit.
There are two main reasons for this. Firstly，when people cut down trees，generally they canonly use the land for a year or two. Secondly，cutting large sections of rainforests may providea good supply of wood right now，but in the long run it actually reduces the world’s woodsupply.
Rainforests are often called the world’s drug store. More than 25％ of the medicines we usetoday come from plants in rainforests. However，fewer than l％of rainforest plants have beenexamined for their medical value. It is extremely likely that our best chance to cure diseases liessomewhere in the world’s shrinking rainforests.
Rainforests can help to adjust the climate because they ________.
(A). reflect more heat into the atmosphere
(B). bring about high rainfall throughout the world
(C). rarely cause the temperature to drop lower than l6℃
(D). reduce the effect of heat from the sun on the earth
41.One evening in February 2007, a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote road in Wales. She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path .That’s when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train. Her Renault Clio was parked across a railway line. Seconds later, she watched the train drag her car almost a kilometre down the railway tracks.
Ceely’s near miss made the news because she blamed it on he GPS (导航仪). She had never driven the route before. It was dark and raining heavily. Ceely was relying on her GPS, but it made no mention of the crossing. “I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train,” she told the BB (C)
Who is to blame here? Rick Stevenson, who tells Ceely’s story in his book When Machines Fail Us, points the finger at the limitations of technology. We put our faith in digital devices, he says, but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job. They are filled with small problems. And it’s not just GPS devices: Stevenson takes us on a tour of digital disasters involving everything from mobile phones to wireless keyboards.
The problem with his argument in the book is that it’s not clear why he only focuses on digital technology, while there may be a number of other possible causes. A map-maker might have left the crossing off a paper map. Maybe we should blame Ceely for not paying attention. Perhaps the railway authorities are at fault for poor singalling system. Or maybe someone has studied the relative dangers and worked out that there really is something specific wrong with the GPS equipment. But Stevenson doesn’t say.
It’s a problem that runs through the book. In a section on cars, Stevenson gives an account of the advanced techniques that criminals use to defeat computer-based locking systems for cars. He offers two independent sets of figures on car theft; both show a small rise in some parts of the country. He says that once again not all new locks have proved reliable. Perhaps, but maybe it’s also due to the shortage of policemen on the streets. Or changing social circumstances. Or some combination of these factors.
The game between humans and their smart devices is amusing and complex. It is shaped by economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be a way for a wiser use of technology.
If there is such a way, it should involve more than just an awareness of the shortcomings of our machines. After all, we have lived with them for thousands of years. They have probably been fooling us for just as long.
What did Paula Ceely think was the cause of her accident？
(A) She was not familiar with the road.
(B) It was dark and raining heavily then.
CThe railway workers failed to give the signal.
(D) Her GPS device didn’t tell her about the crossing.
43. Which of the following is the most appropriate topic sentence for the paragraph below?
(A) Two-year colleges provide better education than four-year universities.
(B) Community colleges are very popular nowadays.
(C) Attending a two-year college has several advantages.
(D) High school graduates should be discouraged from attending a four-year university.
_______________ Going to a two-year college can save up to ten thousand dollars in tuition
fees. All the course credits that are accumulated can be transferred to a four-year university.
Moreover, if the college is nearby, there are no room and board costs.
題型二：(第 43 至 45 題) 下面三篇段落各少了一個句子，請依各段文意選出一個最恰當的選項。 【題組】44. Which of the following can best fit into the blank in the paragraph below?
(A) two capsules per meal per day are suggested
(B) effects have on immune function and learning disabilities
(C) we must acquire them from our diet
(D) the best therapeutic levels for you based on lifestyle and general health
There are about 50 essential elements our bodies require for everyday health and for longevity.
They are considered “essential” because our bodies cannot produce them; _______________.
Most of these essential elements are vitamins, minerals and amino acids, but two are the essential
fatty acids known as omega 3 and omega 6.