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搜尋:quarry

Question 23-33 The preservation of embryos and juveniles is rare occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack if swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils. The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish, and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long. Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched, and quarry operations factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.
【題組】30. The word "they" in line 22 refers to
(A) pregnant females and young
(B) quarry operations
(C) the value of the fossils
(D) these factors

編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:A
難度:非常困難


(B) Michelangelo was a younger contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci and like da Vinci, was a genius. Although his range of talents wasn't as wide as da Vinci's (he focused only on painting and sculpture), the work that he produced was certainly the equal of the older man's. He is probably best known for two works: the fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and his sculpture entitled simply David. 

      Although Michelangelo was born into a noble family, he spent his early life in a small town where his father owned a marble quarry and a farm. Here he lived with a sculptor and his wife who influenced the young Michelangelo greatly. He later told his biographer that any skill he had as a sculptor came about because he "sucked in chisels and hammers with my mother's milk."

    By the time Michelangelo was 15, he had already come to the attention of Lorenzo de Medici, the famous patron of the arts and ruler of the Italian city of Florence. Lorenzo paid Michelangelo to produce sculptures for him and the young man's reputation quickly spread. In 1500, a group in Florence suggested that he might be the man to finish a project started 40 years before by another sculptor. Michelangelo accepted and in 1504 he completed what is probably his most famous piece: David. This statue still stands in Florence.

     However, at the same time that Michelangelo was carving David from a block of marble, he was also working for Pope Julius II in Rome. Having commissioned Michelangelo to build his tomb, Pope Julius constantly interrupted this work by asking Michelangelo to sculpt or paint other things for him. One of these side-projects became the second most famous of Michelangelo's works─the incredible frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel─which took four years to complete.

     Michelangelo died in 1564, before the Pope's tomb was finished, but not before producing works of such great quality that they inspire awe, even 500 years later.


 


【題組】56. Which of the following statements is TRUE about Michelangelo?
(A) His talents resemble those of da Vinci, only of a wider range.
(B) He did not finish building Pope Julius's tomb.
(C) He was raised by a couple who owned a quarry and a farm.
(D) His reputation spread because of the recommendation of Pope Julius II in Florence.

編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:B
難度:適中