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38 下列有關靜脈注射型全身麻醉劑的敘述,何者錯誤?
(A)使用 ketamine 時,成人常會出現作惡夢(bad dream)的經驗
(B)在體內產生作用期間的長短,主要取決於其再分布(redistribution)與代謝的速率
(C)注射 etomidate 時容易出現注射部位的疼痛及肌肉陣攣(myoclonus
(D) Diazepam 的麻醉誘導速率較 thiopental
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答案:D
難度:簡單
1F
Bryan 國三上 (2014/06/12 11:24)
(D)thiopental 是超短效型barbiturates,可迅速穿透血脑屏障,因此麻醉的诱导的速率较快
The need to feed a growing population is putting much pressure on the world’s supply of water. With 97% of the world’s water too salty to be drunk or used in agriculture, the worldwide supply of water needs careful management, especially in agriculture. Although the idea of a water shortage(短缺)seems strange to someone fortunate enough to live in a high rainfull country, many of the world’s agricultural industries experience constant water shortages.
Although dams can be built to store water for agricultural use in dry areas and dry seaons, the costs of water redistribution(重新分配)are very high. Notonly is there the cost of the engineering itself, but there is also an environmental cost to be considered. Where valleys(山谷)are flooded to create dams, houses are lost and wildlife homes destroyed. Besides, water many flow easily through pipes to fields,but it cannot be transported from one side of the world to the other. Each country must therefore rely on the management of its own water to supply its farming requirements.
This is particularly troubling ro countries with agricultural industries in areas dependent on irrigation(灌溉). In Texas, farmersoveruse of irrigation water be resulted in a 25% redcution of the water stores. In the Central Valley area of south eastern USA, a huge water engineering project provided water for farming in dry vallege, but much of the water use has been poorly managed.
Saudi Arabia’s attempts to grow wheat in desert areas have been the pumping of huge quantities of irrigation water from underground reserves. Because there is no rainfall in these areas, such reserves can only decrease, and it is believed that fifty years of pumping will see them run dry.

【題組】72. From the first two paragraphs we learnt that _______.
(A).much of the world’s water is available for use
(B).people in high rainfll countries feel lucky
(C).the costs of water redistribution should be considered
(D).water can be easily carried through pipes across the world
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答案:C
難度:適中
【題組】75.The text is mainly about _____ .
(A).water supply and increasing population
(B).water use management and agriculture
(C).water redistribution and wildlife protection
(D).water shornages and environmental protection.
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答案:B
難度:適中
12. 下列有關 Ketamine 的敘述,何者錯誤?
(A) 是一種靜脈注射的全身性麻醉劑
(B) 作用在 non-NMDA 受體上
(C) 產生神離性麻醉作用 ( dissociative anesthesia )
(D) 會有再度分佈 ( redistribution ) 現象
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答案:B
難度:困難
1F
Jason Chen 國三下 (2014/01/21 12:43)
KETAMINE

麻醉劑全身麻醉劑

藥理作用
本品能夠產生解離狀態的一種迅速作用的麻醉劑,他可能產生深度的麻醉作用,維持著正常骨骼肌張力和喉的反射,和各種心臟血管及呼吸的刺激作用。一般認為他的作用是在產生感覺途徑,專一性的效應之前,先遮斷腦中的聯想途徑。

1.極適合用於需要短時間麻醉之情況,可藉加劑量以延長作用。
2.在不需骨骼肌鬆弛劑配合的情況下,可單獨使用於診斷及手術時之麻醉。
3.當作低效力全身麻醉劑,例如Nitrous Oxide之輔助劑。
4.當作其他全身麻醉劑之誘導麻醉劑。
5.麻醉特色為極深的鎮痛,正當的咽喉反射,正當或微增的骨骼肌張力,心血管與呼吸刺激,偶而短暫且稍微的呼吸抑制,氣道通暢。
22 全民健康保險規定全民「強制納保」,主要是為了避免下列何種保險制度下常見的問題?
(A)道德風險(Moral Hazards
(B)健康不均等(Health Disparities
(C)逆選擇(Adverse Selection
(D)財富重分配(Wealth Redistribution
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答案:C
難度:適中
10
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