Subjects in many old photoswere not smiling at the camera for two reasons. Ann Thomas, curator of photographs at the NationalGallery of Canada, says, “In the earlydays of photography, _____15_____ existed a tradition of formality－handeddownfromportraitpainting－in whichposing for a photograph was considered a _____16_____ occasion.”
The secondreason, according to Thomas, is thatprior to the 1880s, photographsrequiredlongexposures. So _____17_____ the process, thiscouldinvolve 20 minutes or more. Thisnecessitated the subjectremainingstill, and sincemaintaining a smile for such an _____18_____ period was difficult, it was discouraged. The arrival of smilingfaces in photoscameafter the invention of the snapshot in the 1880s with the introduction of the Kodak dry-platecamera. 【題組】16 (A)serene (B)solemn (C)smooth (D)successful
The environmentaffects the way peopleinteract. To examinethisconclusion, two researchers "decorated" threerooms: One room was refurnished to lookugly. The secondroom was intended to lookaverage. The thirdroom was designed to be beautiful. Individualswerethenasked to sit in one of the threerooms and rateseveralpictures of people's faces. The resultsindicatedthat the environment has a significanteffect on the way peoplerated the faces. Subjects in the beautifulroomgave the pictureshigherratesthan did subjects in the uglyroom. In addition, subjects in the uglyroomfound the taskmoreunpleasant and boringthan did subjects in the beautifulroom. Subjectsassigned to the uglyroomattempted to leavesoonerthan did subjectsassigned to the beautifulroom.
Color is one environmentalfactorthat can affectyourmood and evenyourability to concentrate. One researcherconcludedthat the mostpleasantcolors, listed in order of preference, wereblue, green, purple, red and yellow. The colorslistedfrommost to leastarousingwere red, orange, yellow, violet, blue, and green.
Lightingalsoaffectsbehavior. Elegantrestaurantswith dim lightingcreate a mood of intimacy（亲密）thatencouragesconversation. The brightlights of an office or classroom, on the otherhand, arouse and stimulatethinking.
Roomdecoration, color, lighting, and evenmusic and temperature all influencecommunicationwithothers; but there is no all-purposeenvironment. The idealenvironmentdepends on the taskthatwill be performed as well as on the needs and expectations of thosepresent. The sameenvironmentalfactorsthatencouragelivelyconversation and dancing at a New Year's Eve partycannot be expected to create a sereneclimate in which to study for finalexams. 【題組】47. The underlinedword "serene" in the lastsentence is closest in meaning to______.
(A) serious and grave (B) calm and peaceful (C) pleasant and friendly (D) cold and indifferentPassageFour