Subjects in many old photos were not smiling at the camera for two reasons. Ann Thomas, curator of photographs at the National Gallery of Canada, says, “In the early days of photography, _____15_____ existed a tradition of formality－handed down from portrait painting－in which posing for a photograph was considered a _____16_____ occasion.”
The second reason, according to Thomas, is that prior to the 1880s, photographs required long exposures. So _____17_____ the process, this could involve 20 minutes or more. This necessitated the subject remaining still, and since maintaining a smile for such an _____18_____ period was difficult, it was discouraged. The arrival of smiling faces in photos came after the invention of the snapshot in the 1880s with the introduction of the Kodak dry-plate camera. 【題組】16 (A)serene (B)solemn (C)smooth (D)successful
The environment affects the way people interact. To examine this conclusion, two researchers "decorated" three rooms: One room was refurnished to look ugly. The second room was intended to look average. The third room was designed to be beautiful. Individuals were then asked to sit in one of the three rooms and rate several pictures of people's faces. The results indicated that the environment has a significant effect on the way people rated the faces. Subjects in the beautiful room gave the pictures higher rates than did subjects in the ugly room. In addition, subjects in the ugly room found the task more unpleasant and boring than did subjects in the beautiful room. Subjects assigned to the ugly room attempted to leave sooner than did subjects assigned to the beautiful room.
Color is one environmental factor that can affect your mood and even your ability to concentrate. One researcher concluded that the most pleasant colors, listed in order of preference, were blue, green, purple, red and yellow. The colors listed from most to least arousing were red, orange, yellow, violet, blue, and green.
Lighting also affects behavior. Elegant restaurants with dim lighting create a mood of intimacy（亲密）that encourages conversation. The bright lights of an office or classroom, on the other hand, arouse and stimulate thinking.
Room decoration, color, lighting, and even music and temperature all influence communication with others; but there is no all-purpose environment. The ideal environment depends on the task that will be performed as well as on the needs and expectations of those present. The same environmental factors that encourage lively conversation and dancing at a New Year's Eve party cannot be expected to create a serene climate in which to study for final exams. 【題組】47. The underlined word "serene" in the last sentence is closest in meaning to______.
(A) serious and grave (B) calm and peaceful (C) pleasant and friendly (D) cold and indifferent