It came as something of a surprise when Diana, Princess of Wales, made a trip co Angola in 1997, to support the Red Cross's campaign for a total ban on all anti-personnel landmines. Within hours of arriving in Angola, television screens around the world were filled with images of her comforting victims injured in explosions caused by landmines. "I knew the statistics," she said. "But putting a face to those figures brought the reality home to me; like when I met Sandra, a 13- year-old girl who had lost her leg, and people like her."The Princess concluded with a simple message: "We must stop landmines". And she used every opportunity during her visit to repeat this message. But, back in London, her views were not shared by some members of the British government, which refused to support a ban on these weapons. Angry politicians launched an attack on the Princess in the press. They described her as "very ill-informed" and a "loose cannon (乱放炮的人).” The Princess responded by brushing aside the criticisms: "This is a distraction (干扰) we do not need. All I'm trying to do is help."Opposition parties, the media and the public immediately voiced their support for the Princess. To make matters worse for the government, it soon emerged that the Princess's trip had been approved by the Foreign Office, and that she was in fact very well-informed about both the situation in Angola and the British government's policy regarding landmines. The result was a severe embarrassment for the government.To try and limit the damage, the Foreign Secretary, Malcolm Rifkidnd, claimed that the Princess's views on landmines were not very different from government policy, and that it was "working towards" a worldwide ban. The Defence Secretary, Michael Portillo, claimed the matter was "a misinterpretation or misunderstanding."
For the Princess, the trip to this war-torn country was an excellent opportunity to use her popularity to show the world how much destruction and suffering landmines can cause. She said that the experience had also given her the chance to get closer to people and their problems. 【題組】27. What did Diana mean when she said "... putting a face to those figures brought the reality home to me" (Line 5, Para.1)?
(A) She just couldn't bear to meet the landmine victims face to face.
(B) The actual situation in Angola made her feel like going back home.
(C) Meeting the landmine victims in person made her believe the statistics.
(D) Seeing the pain of the victims made her realize the seriousness of the situation.
Susan Sontag (1933 -- 2004) was one of the most noticeable figures in the world of literature. For more than 40 years she made it morally necessary to know everything -- to read every book worth reading, to see every movie worth seeing. When she was still in her early 30s, publishing essays in such important magazines as Partisan Review, she appeared as the symbol of American cultural life, trying hard to follow every new development in literature, film and art. With great effort and serious judgment, Sontag walked at the latest edges of world culture.
Seriousness was one of Sontag's lifelong watchwords (格言), but at a time when the barriers between the well-educated and the poor-educated were obvious, she argued for a true openness to the pleasures of pop culture. In "Notes on Camp", the 1964 essay that first made her name, she explained what was then a little-known set of difficult understandings, through which she could not have been more famous. "Notes on Camp", she wrote, represents "a victory of 'form' over 'content', 'beauty' over 'morals'".
By conviction (信念) she was a sensualist (感觉论者), but by nature she was a moralist (伦理学者), and in the works she published in the 1970s and 1980s, it was the latter side of her that came forward. In Illness as Metaphor -- published in 1978, after she suffered cancer -- she argued against the idea that cancer was somehow a special problem of repressed personalities (被压抑的个性), a concept that effectively blamed the victim for the disease. In fact, re-examining old positions was her lifelong habit.
In America, her story of a 19th century Polish actress who set up a perfect society in California, won the National Book Award in 2000. But it was as a tireless, all-purpose cultural view that she made her lasting fame. "Sometimes," she once said, "I feel that, in the end, all I am really defending ... is the idea of seriousness, of tree seriousness." And in the end, she made us take it seriously too. 【題組】74. As for Susan Sontag's lifelong habit, she______.
(A). misunderstood the idea of seriousness (B). re-examined old positions
(C). argued for an openness to pop culture (D). preferred morals to beauty
【題組】75. Susan Sontag's lasting fame was made upon _____ .
(A). a tireless, all-purpose cultural view (B). her lifelong watchword: seriousness
(C). publishing books on morals
(D). enjoying books worth reading and movies worth seeing
IV. 閱讀測驗：16％，每題 2 分
WHEN Doug Hollan arrived on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi for his anthropology
dissertation fieldwork in a rice farming village, his Toraja neighbors wanted to take turns
sleeping with him and his wife. The rural Toraja almost never sleep alone. They sleep in
wood frame houses with little furniture and flimsy room dividers, and they sleep on the floor
together in groups, sharing blankets and huddling close for warmth. And so the Toraja have
“punctuated” sleep. They wake often as others turn and get up in the night, or when a child
calls out or another adult can’t sleep and starts to chat. Mr. Hollan never heard anyone
complain about this.
Many years after he returned from Toraja, Mr. Hollan became a psychotherapist and
opened a practice in Los Angeles. Most of his clients have voiced discomfort, at some point
or another, with their sleep. They do so even though they have what you might imagine would
be the perfect conditions to sleep soundly. They have private darkened rooms that they share
with at most one person and, often, expensively manufactured beds that minimize disturbance
to the other person when one gets up in the night. His clients want to make sure they get seven
or eight hours of continuous sleep, and when they try to sleep but they can’t, they get upset.
They are not alone. The National Sleep Foundation reports that more than one in five
Americans has difficulty falling asleep almost every night, and a 2013 Centers for Disease
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Control and Prevention study found that about 4 percent of adults in the United States had
taken a prescription sleeping pill in the previous month.
This obsession with eight hours of continuous sleep is largely a creation of the electrified
age. Back when night fell for, on average, half of each 24 hours, people slept in phases. In “At
Day’s Close,” a remarkable history of night in the early modern West, Roger Ekirch writes
that people fell asleep not long after dark for the “first sleep.” Then they awoke, somnolent
but not asleep, often around midnight, when for a few hours they talked, read, prayed, had sex,
brewed beer or burgled. Then they went back to sleep for a shorter period. Mr. Ekirch
concludes, “There is every reason to believe that segmented sleep, such as many wild animals
exhibit, had long been the natural pattern of our slumber before the modern age, with a
provenance as old as humankind.”
In traditional non-Western societies like the Toraja, what happens at night really matters.
People pay close attention to their dreams, and because they are awakened more often, they
have more opportunity to remember them. “Thanks to these continuous disruptions,” he
writes, “dreams spill into wakefulness and wakefulness into dreams in a way that entangles
【題組】38. What is the main idea of the article?
(A) Doug Hollan, one of the well-acclaimed psychotherapists in Los Angeles, used to look
for insomnia treatment in Indonesia.
(B) Social pressure and fatigue mainly contribute to the seriousness of today’s pandemic
(C) The concept of eight hours of continuous sleep is not always the golden rule held by
(D) Patients who suffer from annoying sleeplessness are advised to pay a visit to the
island of Sulawesi.