To paraphrase 18th-centurystatesmanEdmundBurke, “all that is needed for the triumph of a misguidedcause is thatgoodpeople do nothing.”One suchcause now seeks to end biomedicalresearchbecause of the theorythatanimalshaverightsruling out their use in research. Scientistsneed to respondforcefully to animalrightsadvocates, whosearguments are confusing the public and therebythreateningadvances in healthknowledge and care. Leaders of the animalrightsmovementtargetbiomedicalresearchbecause it depends on publicfunding, and few peopleunderstand the process of healthcareresearch. Hearingallegations of cruelty to animals in researchsettings, many are perplexedthatanyonewoulddeliberatelyharm an animal.
For example, a grandmotherlywomanstaffing an animalrightsbooth at a recentstreetfair was distributing a brochurethatencouragedreaders not to use anythingthatopposedimmunizations, she wanted to know if vaccinescomefromanimalresearch. Whenassuredthatthey do, she replied, “Then I wouldhave to say yes.”Askedwhatwillhappenwhenepidemicsreturn, she said, “Don't worry, scientistswillfindsome way of usingcomputers.”Suchwell-meaningpeoplejust don's understand.
Scientistsmustcommunicatetheirmessage to the public in a compassionate, understandable way-in humanterms, not in the language of molecularbiology. We need to makeclear the connectionbetweenanimalresearch and a grandmother's hip replacement, a father's bypassoperation a baby's vaccinations, and even a pet's shots. To those who are unawarethatanimalresearch was needed to producethesetreatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearchseemswasteful at best and cruel at worst.
Much can be done. Scientistscould“adopt”middleschoolclasses and presenttheir own research. Theyshould be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lestanimalrightsmisinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptiveappearance of truth. Researchinstitutionscould be opened to tours, to showthatlaboratoryanimalsreceivehumanecare. Finally, because the ultimatestakeholders are patients, the healthresearchcommunityshouldactivelyrecruit to its cause not onlywell-knownpersonalitiessuch as StephenCooper, who has madecourageousstatementsabout the value of animalresearch, but all who receivemedicaltreatment. If goodpeople do nothingthere is a realpossibilitythat an uninformedcitizenrywillextinguish the preciousembers of medicalprogress. 【題組】49.The authorbelievesthat, in face of the challengefromanimalrightsadvocates, scientistsshould (A) communicatemorewith the public.
(B) employ hi-techmeans in research.
(C) feel no shame for theircause.
(D) strive to develop new cures.
Ask mostpeople how theydefine the AmericanDream and chances are they’ll say, “Success.” The dream of individualopportunity has beenhome in AmericansinceEuropeansdiscovered a “new world” in the WesternHemisphere. EarlyimmigrantslikeHector St. Jean de Crevecoeurpraisedhighly the freedom and opportunity to be found in this new land. His glowingdescriptions of a classlesssocietywhereanyonecouldattainsuccessthroughhonesty and hardworkfired the imaginations of manyEuropeanreaders: in Lettersfrom an AmericanFarmer (1782) he wrote. “We are all excited at the spirit of an industrywhich is unfettered (无拘无束的) and unrestrained, becauseeachpersonworks for himself … We have no princes, for whom we toil (干苦力活)，starve, and bleed: we are the mostperfectsociety now existing in the world.” The promise of a landwhere “the rewards of a man’s industryfollowwithequalsteps the progress of his labor” drewpoorimmigrantsfromEurope and fuelednationalexpansioninto the westernterritories.
Our nationalmythology (神化) is full of illustration the Americansuccessstory. There’s BenjaminFranklin, the verymodel of the self-educated, self-made man, who rosefrommodestorigins to become a well-knownscientist, philosopher, and statesman. In the nineteenthcentury, HoratioAlger, a writer of fiction for youngboys, becameAmerican’s best-sellingauthorwithrags-to-richestales. The notion of successhaunts us: we spendmillioneveryyearreadingabout the rich and famous, learning how to “make a fortune in realestatewith no moneydown,” and “dressing for success.” The myth of success has eveninvaded our personalrelationships: today it’s as important to be “successful” in marriage or parenthoods as it is to come out on top in business.
But dreamseasilyturnintonightmares. EveryAmerican who hopes to “make it” alsoknows the fear of failure, because the myth of successinevitablyimpliescomparisonbetween the haves and the have-nots, the stars and the anonymouscrowd. Underpressure of the myth, we becomeindulged in statussymbols: we try to live in the “right” neighborhoods, wear the “right” clothes, eat the “right” foods. Thesesymbols of distinctionassure us and othersthat we believestrongly in the fundamentalequality of all, yet strive as hard as we can to separateourselvesfrom our fellowcitizens. 【題組】30. What is the paradox of Americancultureaccording to the author?
(A) The Americanroad to success is full of nightmares.
(B) Statussymbols are not a realindicator of a person’s wealth.
(C) The AmericanDream is nothing but an emptydream.
Directions: There are 2 passages in thissection. Eachpassage is followed by somequestions or unfinishedstatements. For each of them are fourchoicesmarked A), B), C) and D).You shoulddecide on the bestchoice and mark the correspondingletter on Answersheet 2 with a singlelinethrough the centre.
As we haveseen, the focus of medicalcare in our society has beenshiftingfromcuringdisease to preventingdisease – especially in terms of changing our manyunhealthybehaviors, such as pooreatinghabits, smoking, and failure to exercise. The line of thoughtinvolved in thisshift can be pursuedfurther. Imagine a person who is about the rightweight , but does not eat verynutritious(有营养的) foods, who feels OK but exercisesonlyoccasionally, who goes to workevery day, but is not an outstandingworker, who drinks a few beers at homemostnights but does not drivewhiledrunk , and who has no chestpains or abnormalbloodcounts, but sleeps a lot and oftenfeelstired. Thisperson is not ill. He may not even be at risk for any particulardisease. But we can imaginethatthispersoncould be a lot healthier.
The field of medicine has not traditionallydistinguishedbetweensomeone who is merely “ not ill” and someone who is in excellenthealth and paysattention to the body’s specialneeds. Bothtypeshavesimplybeencalled “well”. In recentyears, however, somehealthspecialistshavebegun to apply the terms “well” and “wellness” only to those who are activelystriving to maintain and improvetheirhealth. People who are well are concernedwithnutrition and exercise and theymake a point of monitoringtheirbody's condition. Mostimportant, perhaps, people who are welltakeactiveresponsibility for all mattersrelated to theirhealth. Evenpeople who have a physicaldisease or handicap (缺陷) may be "well," in this new sense, if theymake an effort to maintain the bestpossiblehealththey can in the face of theirphysicallimitations. "Wellness" may perhapsbest be viewed not as a statethatpeople can achieve, but as an idealthatpeople can strive for. People who are well are likely to be betterable to resistdisease and to fightdiseasewhen it strikes. And by focusingattention on healthyways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficialimpact on the ways in whichpeopleface the challenges of dailylife. 【題組】60. According to the author, the truemeaning of “wellness” is for people _____.
(A) to meet the stricteststandards of bodilyhealth (B) to bestsatisfytheirbody's specialneeds (C) to strive to maintain the bestpossiblehealth (D) to keep a properbalancebetweenwork and leisure
Self-denial is the typicalfirststeptoward an eatingdisorder. (E)ventually, desires for what you've deniedyourselfbecomeunbearable, and you reactwitheither a binge or overlyfierceself-control. The answer is not of course. To eat all the snacks and treats you fancy. (B)ut to avoidthatfirststepthatleads to overeating, strive for a good and healthydietSuch a diet is basedprimarily on grainproducts, fruits, and vegetables, withmoderateamounts of meat and dairyproducts and withsmallamounts of snacks and desserts. Researchdemonstratesthatthiskind of dietleaves you morealert and energetic.