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20. 下列有關基因體緘默突變(Silent mutation)的敘述,何者錯誤?
(A)雖然DNA 改變了特定的密碼,但不改變胺基酸種類,因此不影響最終的蛋白質產物
(B)緘默突變大部份發生於內插子(introns)、外插子(exons)或非基因之處
(C)緘默突變是指單一核苷酸被取代(Nucleotide Substitution),造成轉譯結果所合成的蛋白質不具功能或功能不全
(D)同義突變(synonymous mutation)也是一種緘默突變,通常發生於外插子的片段
編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:C
難度:適中
1F
pudding 國三下 (2016/05/14 23:10)
.沉默突變(silent mutation)
...


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Passage A Global pharmaceutical giant Abbott Laboratories has agreed to pay federal and state governments $1.6 billion in criminal and civil fines for illegally promoting unapproved uses of its drug Depakote, including to sedate elderly patients in nursing homes, officials announced Monday. The settlement, which includes an agreement to plead guilty to a criminal misdemeanor, is the second-largest in a string of multimillion-dollar payouts in recent years resulting from stepped-up enforcement by the Justice Department and state investigators against drugmakers that “misbrand” their products. While doctors can — and frequently do — prescribe drugs for purposes beyond those approved as “safe and effective” by the Food and Drug Administration, it is illegal for manufacturers to actively market their products for such off-label use. “Not only did Abbott engage in off-label promotion, but it targeted elderly dementia patients and down-played the risks apparent from its own clinical studies,” Tony West, acting associate attorney general, said in a statement. In 2009, Pfizer paid the largest settlement to date in such a case — $2.3 billion in connection with its marketing of drugs that included the painkiller Bextra. Last year, British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline announced that it expects to reach a bigger settlement this year related to its development and promotion of the diabetes drug Avandia, among others. As part of the settlement, Abbott admitted that beginning in 1998 it trained a special sales force to promote Depakote to nursing-home employees as a way to control the agitation and aggression that can occur in elderly patients suffering from dementia. In 1999, Abbott was forced to discontinue a clinical trial testing Depakote’s effectiveness against dementia when it became evident that the drug increased the incidence of drowsiness, dehydration and anorexia in elderly study participants. Yet the sales team continued to push the drug to nursing homes through 2006. In its marketing, Abbott highlighted the fact that Depakote was not covered by a 1987 law designed to prevent the use of unnecessary medications by nursing homes. So if nursing homes used it in place of other options, they could avoid the administrative costs and burdens of complying with that law.
【題組】43. Which word in the passage is synonymous with “off-label use” in paragraph 3?
(A) pharmaceutical
(B) misbrand
(C) dementia
(D) misdemeanor
編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:B
難度:適中
Cloze: (I) Fast-food is such a pervasive part of American life that it has become (1) ____ with American culture. Fast-food was born in America and it has now swollen into a $106-billion industry. America exports fast-food worldwide and its attendant corporate culture, has probably been more influential and done more to destroy local food economies and cultural diversity than any government propaganda programme could hope to accomplish. No corner of the earth is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is (2) ____. Fast food is now found in shopping malls, airports, hospitals, gas stations, stadiums, on trains, and (3) ____, in schools. There are 23,000 restaurants in one chain alone, and another 2,000 are being opened every year. Its effect has been the same on the millions of people it feeds daily and on the people it employs. Fast-food culture has changed how we work, from its assembly-line kitchens filled with robotic frying machines (4) ____the trite phrases spoken to customers by its poorly paid part-time workforce. In the United States, more than 57 percent of the population eats meals away from home on any given day and they spend more money on fast-food than they do on higher education, personal computers, or (5) ____on new cars.
【題組】 1.
(A) ideal
(B) synonymous
(C) related
(D) representative
編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:B
難度:適中
1F
金榜題名 高一上 (2014/05/25 13:03)
relate to/   from......to
2F
Mac Liang 國三下 (2017/07/11 14:52)
attendant 伴隨的,侍候的// corporate 法人(組織)的,團體的,公司的,共同的,全體的
26.The pair absent/present is an example of ___________.
(A)complementary pair
(B)gradable pair
(C)relational opposite
(D)synonymous pair
編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:A
難度:困難
1F
呂 唯琳 高二下 (2014/06/11 20:55)
complementary互補
2F
李明哲 大四上 (2016/05/22 22:50)
兩人缺席/現在___________的一個例子。
(A)對互補
(B可分級
C)的關係相反
(D)代名詞
3F
tsz1429 小一下 (2017/06/06 17:25)

complementary pair (非黑即白的相對): two antonyms related in such a way that negation of one is the meaning of the other, e.g., alive & dead / exit & entrance

gradable pair (程度上的相對): two antonyms related in such a way that more of one is less of the other, e.g., warm & cold (more warm is less cold)

relational opposite (兩者間有關聯的相對): a pair of antonyms in which one describes a relationship between two objects and the other describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed, e.g., parent & child / teacher & student / doctor & patien...


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( B ) Thomas Watson Jr. told Wharton students in 1973 that good design is good business. The idea seemed quixotic, silly even. To many people, design still meant the 21 polish of nicer homes and cleaner graphics. But Watson had earned the right to his belief. The recently retired IBM CEO was a business oracle, 22 the company tenfold during his tenure by transforming its signature product line. Once 23 the grime of cogs and springs, Big Blue had become the face of a new computer age. Watson had always been a pioneering advocate for design. In 1953, he recruited Eliot Noyes to reinvent the street-level showroom at IBM’s Manhattan headquarters. And as IBM transformed, it became 24 with the rise of modernism. Innovation today is 25 linked with design--- and design has been a decisive advantage in countless industries, not to mention crucial tool to 26 commoditization. The easiest is that design allows us to 27 customer’s lust--- and demand higher prices as a result. So why change? Because good design is very profitable.
【題組】24.
(A) detrimental
(B) feasible
(C) effusive
(D) synonymous
編輯私有筆記及自訂標籤
答案:D
難度:困難